You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through verses from the Bible by examining Gjenesi 2:4-14; that is, verses 4-14 of the second chapter of the Book of Genesis, where the subject is il paradîs dal Eden (paradise of Eden), also called il zardin dal Eden (garden of Eden).
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).
The Friulian text that you will examine was prepared by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.
Before you begin your study below, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:
- Read and hear Gjenesi 2:4-14 in a new window on bibie.org
- Read and hear Gjenesi 2:4-14 in this same window on bibie.org
The reading of these verses in the video starts at 0:00 and ends at 1:39.
Il Signôr Diu found in this verse translates as the Lord God.
You have encountered the feminine singular cheste before, which you find again now at the beginning of this verse; it means this. E je cheste la storie means it is this the history; story (that is, this is the history; story).
Now is a good time to review the four forms of the Friulian word for this: chest (masculine singular), cheste (feminine singular), chescj (masculine plural), chestis (feminine plural). The examples below use the masculine nouns il paîs (country) and il ream (kingdom), and the feminine nouns la peraule (word) and la robe (thing).
Cuant che means when.
cuant che a forin creâts
when they were created
To say, for example, he created, you now know that Friulian can express this using either the passât sempliç or the passât prossim:
al à creât
To say it was, these same two tenses can be used. You have already encountered how to say it was using the passât prossim, which you will recall is al è stât; here now is how to also say it using the passât sempliç (first example below):
al è stât
To say the passive it was created, you can now express this two ways:
al fo creât
al è stât creât
As for the plural they were, this can be expressed as:
a son stâts
To say the passive they were created, you can now express this as:
a forin creâts
a son stâts creâts
The passât sempliç is especially used in texts, when describing, for example, historical events.
The Friulian expression for there is is al è; negated, it becomes nol è (there is not).
al è chi un frutut (Zuan 6:9)
there is here a child
nol è nuie di gnûf sot dal soreli (Qoelet 1:9)
there is nothing new under the sun
Using the imperfet indicatîf, al è becomes al jere (there was) and nol è becomes nol jere (there was not).
nol jere nissun sterp
there was not any shrub
nol jere om
there was not man
Ancjemò means yet. Nissun means no, none. Nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp, then, means there was not yet any shrub.
You also encounter nissun in its feminine form in this verse: nissune sorte di jerbe (no sort of grass), where the Friulian word for sort used here is la sorte. Here are more examples of nissun:
The expression dâ fûr literally translates as to give out, but you will understand it here as meaning to come forward, to sprout, to germinate. The past participle of dâ is dât.
al à dât fûr
al veve dât fûr
it had sprouted
The verb plovi means to rain; fâ plovi, then, means to make it rain, to cause to rain.
il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi su la tiere
the Lord God had not made it rain on the earth
The expression lavorâ la tiere means to work the earth. In this verse, you encounter al lavoràs, which is the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet.
l’om al lavore
l’om al à lavorât
the man works
the man worked
nol è om che al lavori
nol jere om che al lavoràs
there is not man who works
there was not man who worked
You will recall the expression vignî fur, meaning to come forth (literally, to come out). In this verse, you encounter fâ vignî fûr, meaning to make come forth, to cause to come forth. You also find the verb bagnâ, meaning to wet, to soak.
Both fâ and bagnâ are found in this verse used in the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet: al fasès, al bagnàs.
Dulintor means surrounding, around: il teren dulintor (the surrounding ground).
You will recall that il stamp means stamp, form: fâ il stamp dal om (to make the form of the man; that is, to form the man).
L’argile is a feminine noun meaning clay, mud. When cun (with) comes into contact with a feminine noun using the definite article l’, it becomes cu l’, as you find in this verse: cu l’argile. You may wish to review how Friulian prepositions contract with definite articles.
The verb soflâ means to blow. La buse is a nostril of the nose; the Friulian word for nose is il nâs. Tes busis dal nâs, then, means into the nostrils of the nose. You will recall that in combines with lis to form tes. What God blew into the nostrils was une soflade di vite (breath of life).
The verb deventâ means to become.
l’om al deventà une creature vivent
man became a living creature
The masculine noun il zardin means garden. God placed it in Eden: tal Eden. In Friulian, the four cardinal points are Nord, Sud, Est, Ovest (north, south, east, west).
In this verse, you do not find Est but soreli jevât, which also means east. The Friulian word for sun is il soreli; jevât derives from the verb jevâ, meaning to rise. The opposite of soreli jevât is soreli bonât (west), where bonât derives from the verb bonâ, meaning to set.
Imperi di Soreli Jevât
Land of the Rising Sun
(that is, Japan)
You will recall the noun la bande, meaning side. You first encountered this noun in Gjenesi 1:4, where you read: al metè la lûs di une bande e il scûr di chê altre.
de bande di soreli jevât
towards the east, eastwards
Here are examples, taken from the Grant Dizionari Bilengâl Talian-Furlan (GDB), of how you might use Nord, Sud, Est, Ovest:
lâ a Nord
to go North
a Est il cîl al è nulât
to the East the sky is cloudy
viazâ bande Est
to travel towards the east
une perturbazion di Ovest
a disturbance from the west
la cueste Sud de mont
the south side of the mountain
In the examples above, the definite article is not used with the cardinal points because they refer to general directions; however, in the examples that follow, the definite article is used because the cardinal points are used as nouns referring to defined geographic areas:
il Nord dal Friûl
the north of Friuli
un paîs dal Est
a country in (of) the east
il Portugal al è tal Ovest de Europe
Portugal is in the west of Europe
Northern Italy and Southern Italy can be referred to as il Nord Italie and il Sud Italie.
i problemis dal Nord Italie
the problems of Northern Italy
(il probleme, problem)
l’emigrazion dal Sud Italie
the emigration from Southern Italy
If you are interested in the use of soreli jevât, here is another example of it taken from the Bible:
la puarte (…) e cjale a soreli jevât (Ezechiel 46:1)
the door looks to the east
(cjalâ, to look)
You will find another Biblical example of soreli jevât when you read verse 14 below. Here is an example of it taken from the GDB:
la Slovenie e je a soreli jevât dal Friûl
Slovenia is to the east of Friuli
Li means there. You will recall that the verb meti means to put.
e li al metè l’om che al veve fat
and there he put the man that he had made
You will recall the expression butâ fûr means to bring forth. In this verse, you encounter al fasè butâ fûr, meaning he made bring (come) forth, he caused to bring (come) forth.
Ogni means every; ogni sorte means every sort.
The Friulian word for tree is the masculine l’arbul; its plural form is i arbui. This is not the first time you have seen a masculine noun ending in l form its plural with i rather than s; you have also seen il nemâl, i nemâi.
Above, you saw a jere, in the sense of there was. Of course, a jere literally means it was, as this is the masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb jessi. Its third-person plural equivalent is a jerin (they were).
al è un spectacul dome a viodilu
a son un spetacul dome a viodiju
it is a sight just to see it
they are a sight just to see them
a jere un spetacul dome a viodilu
a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju
it was a sight just to see it
they were a sight just to see them
The masculine noun il spetacul means (pleasant) sight, beauty, spectacle. Dome means only, just. Viodilu translates as to see it; viodiju translates as to see them.
The adjective bon means good; here are its four forms: bon (masculine singular), buine (feminine singular), bogns (masculine plural), buinis (feminine plural).
In this verse, you encounter bogns di mangjâ (good to eat), where bogns agrees in number and gender with arbui, and the verb mangjâ means to eat. Here is another example, this time using the feminine la robe (thing): robis buinis di mangjâ.
You will recall tal mieç from Gjenesi 1:6, where you read tal mieç des aghis (in the middle of the waters). In this verse, you encounter tal mieç dal zardin (in the middle of the garden).
The tree of life is expressed in Friulian as l’arbul de vite, which translates literally as the tree of the life. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is expressed as l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl. The Friulian word for knowledge is a feminine one: la cognossince, which you will have deduced from the use of de before it. Il ben is that which is good; il mâl is that which is evil.
You can understand the expression saltâ fûr as meaning to flow out. In this verse, you read that un flum (river) flowed out of Eden: dal Eden. The expression saltâ fûr is found in this verse in its masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf form: al saltave fûr; this can be understood as it was flowing out.
You will recall that the verb bagnâ means to wet, to soak.
You have seen that li means there; now you encounter di li, meaning from there.
In this verse, you find another example of the masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf with si divideve, from the reflexive verb dividisi. The verb dividi means to divide (something); the reflexive verb dividisi means to divide oneself.
Diu al divideve il flum
God was dividing the river
il flum si divideve
the river was dividing itself
The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of si.
The verb formâ means to form. The Friulian word for arm is un braç; you will understand the use of braç in this verse as meaning branch.
par formâ cuatri braçs
to form four branches
(that is, to form four waterflows)
The expression vê non means to be named (literally, to have name). The Friulian word for name is a masculine noun: il non. You read in this verse that il prin flum (the first river) al à non Pison (is named Pishon).
The expression girâ torator means to go around, where the verb girâ means to turn, and torator means around.
al gire torator
it goes around
torator de tiere di Avile
around the land of Havilah
Là is another word for there. You can understand là che as meaning there where.
là che al è aur
there where there is gold
You will recall that al è is used to express there is. Aur (gold) is a masculine noun.
The adjective rût means pure.
The verb cjatâ means to find; the reflexive cjatâsi means to be found (literally, to find oneself). Ancje means also. La pês is resin.
si cjate ancje pês
resin is also found
(literally, resin also finds itself)
The expression nulî bon means to smell good.
la pês e nûl bon
the resin smells good
pês ch’e nûl bon
resin that smells good
chestis rosis a nulissin bon
these flowers smell good
(la rose, flower; il garoful, rose)
La piere di onice means onyx stone, where the feminine noun piere means stone, and the feminine noun onice means onyx.
In this verse, rather than the expression girâ torator seen above, you encounter the synonymous girâ dulintor; like torator, dulintor means around. You first saw dulintor in verse 6 above: il teren dulintor.
Ghicon and Kus are the Friulian names for Gihon and Cush.
You will recall the ordinal numbers from first to seventh: prin, secont, tierç, cuart, cuint, sest, setim. The feminine forms are: prime, seconde, tierce, cuarte, cuinte, seste, setime.
Assur is the Friulian for Assyria. The rivers Tigris and Euphrates take the Friulian names Tigri and Eufrât.
The verb scori means to flow.
il Tigri al scor a soreli jevât di Assur
the Tigris flows to the east of Assyria