Friulian language series: Gjenesi 2, paradîs dal Eden

The second chapter of the book of Genesis treats of: il paradîs dal Eden (the paradise of Eden), otherwise known as il zardin dal Eden (the garden of Eden).

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Verset 1

Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest (so were put into place) il cîl e la tiere (the heaven and the earth) cun dutis lis lôr schiriis (with all their arrays).

Vocabulary: cussì (so), meti (to put), il puest (place), meti a puest (to put into place), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), cun (with), dut (all), la schirie (array).

Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere: so were put into place the heaven and the earth. The verb meti means to put; its past participle is metût. Observe: jessi (to be); a son (they are); a son stâts (they were); a son stâts metûts (they were put); a son stâts metûts a puest (they were put into place).

A son stâts is the third-person plural of the passât prossim of the verb jessi, where stât is the past participle of this verb: al è stât (he was; he has been); a son stâts (they were; they have been). For the passât prossim has been formed here with the auxiliary jessi, the past participle stât must then agree in gender and number with its subject. (Some verbs take as their auxiliary in the passât prossim; others take the verb jessi.) Consider the following: al à metût (he put; he has put); a àn metût (they put; they have put); o soi stât (I was; I have been); al è stât (he was; he has been); a son stâts (they were; they have been); e à metût (she put; she has put); e je stade (she was; she has been).

In the text of this verse, you find a son stâts metûts, meaning they were put into place. In this passive construction, metût must also agree in gender and number with its subject. Observe: al à metût (he put; he has put); al è stât metût (he was put; he has been put); e à metût (she put; she has put); e je stade metude (she was put; she has been put); a àn metût (they put; they have put); a son stâts metûts (they were put; they have been put [masculine plural]); a son stadis metudis (they were put; they have been put [feminine plural]).

Review: Present indicative of the verb jessi. You must know this conjugation to create the passive constructions seen above. For instance, he is in Friulian is al è; you must know this that you should be able to say al è stât metût (he was put; he has been put). Similarly, she is in Friulian is e je; you must know this that you should be able to say e je stade metude (she was put; she has been put).

From the text of this verse, a son stâts metûts agrees in gender and number with il cîl e la tiere. For one masculine noun (il cîl) and one feminine noun (la tiere) are present, the agreement is then made with the masculine plural. Were two masculine nouns present, the agreement would also be made with the masculine plural. Were two feminine nouns present, the agreement would be made with the feminine plural; for instance: l’aghe e la tiere a son stadis metudis (the water and the earth were put; the water and the earth have been put).

Cun dutis lis lôr schiriis: with all their arrays. Review: Friulian possessive adjectives. Schiriis is the plural of the feminine schirie.

Verset 2

Diu al finì la sô vore (God finished his work) te setime zornade (on [in] the seventh day) e te setime zornade (and on [in] the seventh day) al polsà di dute la vore che al veve fate (did he rest from all the work which he had done).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), finî (to finish), la vore (work), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), polsâ (to rest), (to do).

Te setime zornade: literally, in the seventh day. Te is a contraction of in + la (in + the): te (in the) setime (seventh) zornade (day), which is to say, on the seventh day.

In che al veve fate, the past participle fat has taken its feminine singular form fate to agree with the feminine singular vore preceding it. Consider the following: il cîl che al veve fat (the heaven which he had made); la vore che al veve fate (the work which he had done).

The Friulian for seventh is setim (masculine); setime (feminine). Observe these feminine forms (first to seventh): la prime zornade; la seconde zornade; la tierce zornade; la cuarte zornade; la cuinte zornade; la seste zornade; la setime zornade. Now the masculine: il prin libri; il secont libri; il tierç libri; il cuart libri; il cuint libri; il sest libri; il setim libri. (The masculine libri means book.)

Verset 3

Diu al benedì la setime zornade (God blessed the seventh day) e le fasè sante (and made it holy), parcè che al veve polsât (for he had rested) di dute la vore de creazion (from all the work of creation).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), benedî (to bless), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), sant (holy), fâ sant (to make holy), parcè che (for), polsâ di (to rest from), dut (all), la vore (work), la creazion (creation).

The adjective sant means holy; its four forms are sant (masculine singular); sants (masculine plural); sante (feminine singular); santis (feminine plural). In le fasè sante (he made it holy), le (it) stands in for the feminine zornade and sant takes its feminine singular form sante to agree with it. Le is the feminine equivalent of lu, already encountered: [Diu] lu creà sul stamp di Diu (Gjenesi 1:27). You have also seen the plural ju: [Diu] ju creà mascjo e femine.

In the presence of lu, le and ju, the atonic pronouns al, e and a are not expressed. Observe: Diu al creà; Diu lu creà (God created; God created it/him); Diu al fasè; Diu le fasè (God made; God made it/her); Diu al creà; Diu ju creà (God created; God created them).

De creazion: literally, of the creation; de is a contraction of di + la (of + the).

Consider the following: al fasè (he made); al à fat (he made; he has made); al veve fat (he had made). Consider also: al polsà (he rested); al à polsât (he rested; he has rested); al veve polsât (he had rested).

Versets 4-6

E je cheste (it is this) la storie dal cîl e de tiere (the story of the heaven and the earth), cuant che a forin creâts (when they were created). Cuant che il Signôr Diu al fasè la tiere e il cîl (when the Lord God made the earth and the heaven), nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp su la tiere (there was not yet any shrub on the earth) e no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe (and it had not yet given forth any sort of grass), parcè che il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi su la tiere (for the Lord God had not made it rain upon the earth) e nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere (and there was not man who might work the earth), che al fasès vignî fûr aghe de tiere (who might make water come forth from the earth) e che al bagnàs il teren dulintor (and who might wet the ground all round).

Vocabulary: chest (this), la storie (story), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), cuant che (when), creâ (to create), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), nol jere (there was not), ancjemò (yet), nissun (not any), il sterp (shrub), (to give), dâ fûr (to give forth), la sorte (sort), la jerbe (grass), parcè che (for), plovi (to rain), fâ plovi (to make it rain), un om (man), lavorâ (to work), vignî fûr (to come forth), fâ vignî fûr (to make come forth), la aghe (water), bagnâ (to wet), il teren (ground), dulintor (all round).

E je cheste la storie: it is this the story. Chest means this; its feminine form is cheste. Observe: al è chest (it is this); e je cheste (it is this). Review the four forms taken by chest: chest (masculine singular); cheste (feminine singular); chescj (masculine plural); chestis (feminine plural). The following examples use the masculine nouns libri and ream, and the feminine nouns peraule and robe: chest libri (this book); chescj reams (these kingdoms); cheste peraule (this word); chestis robis (these matters).

Cuant che a forin creâts: when they were created. Friulian may express he created using either the passât sempliç (which gives al creà) or the passât prossim (which gives al à creât). To say it was, these same two tenses may be used: al fo or al è stât. In similar fashion, the passive it was created may be expressed two ways: al fo creât; al è stât creât. As for the plural they were, so may this be expressed: a forin; a son stâts. The passive they were created may be expressed thus: a forin creâts; a son stâts creâts. The passât sempliç is especially a literary form, with common usage preferring the passât prossim.

Nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp: there was not yet any shrub. Nol jere is read here as there was not; its present-time equivalent is nol è. Supplementary examples of nissun (not any): nissune pôre (not any fear); nissun libri (not any book); nissun fûc (not any fire); nissune femine (not any woman). Nissune is the feminine form of nissun.

E no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe: and it had not yet given forth any sort of grass. No veve is a feminine form which may only refer in this context to the feminine tiere. Consider: il Signôr Diu nol veve dât fûr (the Lord God had not given forth); la tiere no veve dât fûr (the earth had not given forth). The masculine form uses nol, whereas the feminine uses no.

Il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi: the Lord God had not made it rain. The masculine nol veve fat (had not made) is employed here to agree with its masculine subject il Signôr Diu; had the subject been feminine, it would have read no veve fat. Plovi means to rain; fâ plovi means to make {it} rain; to cause to rain.

Nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere: there was not man who might work the earth. The verb lavorâ means to work. In this verse, al lavoràs is encountered, which is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. Consider the following: l’om al lavore (the man works); l’om al lavorave (the man was working; the man used to work); nol è om che al lavori (there is not man who may work); nol jere om che al lavoràs (there was not man who might work).

More masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet forms are encountered with al fasès and al bagnàs.

Following is a closer breakdown of the text of these three verses for study purposes: E je (it is) cheste (this) la storie (the story) dal cîl (of the heaven) e (and) de tiere (of the earth), cuant che (when) a forin (they were) creâts (created). Cuant che (when) il Signôr Diu (the Lord God) al fasè (made) la tiere (the earth) e (and) il cîl (the heaven), nol jere (was not) ancjemò (yet) nissun (any) sterp (shrub) su la tiere (on the earth) e (and) no veve (it had not) ancjemò (yet) dât fûr (given forth) nissune (any) sorte (sort) di jerbe (of grass), parcè che (for) il Signôr Diu (the Lord God) nol veve (had not) fat (made) plovi (to rain) su la tiere (on the earth) e (and) nol jere (was not) om (man) che (who) al lavoràs (might work) la tiere (the earth), che (who) al fasès (might make) vignî fûr (come forth) aghe (water) de tiere (from the earth) e (and) che (who) al bagnàs (might wet) il teren (the ground) dulintor (all round).

Verset 7

Alore il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) al fasè il stamp dal om cu l’argile (made the form of man with clay), i soflà tes busis dal nâs une soflade di vite (blew into the holes of his nose a breath of life) e l’om al deventà une creature vivent (and man became a living creature).

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), il stamp (form), fâ il stamp di (to make the form of), un om (man), l’argile (clay), soflà (to blow), la buse (hole), il nâs (nose), la soflade (breath), la vite (life), deventâ (to become), la creature (creature), vivent (living).

I soflà tes busis dal nâs: taken literally, this translates as unto him did he blow into the holes of the nose: i (unto him) soflà (did he blow; he blew) tes busis (into the holes) dal nâs (of the nose), which is to say, he blew into the holes of his nose. La buse is the Friulian for hole; for nose, the Friulian is il nâs. In (in; into) combines with lis (the; feminine plural) to form tes (in the; into the; feminine plural): in + lis busis = tes busis (into the holes). A nostril is also called une narile in Friulian.

L’argile is a feminine noun meaning clay; when cun (with) comes into contact with a feminine noun using the definite article l’, it becomes cu l’, as in cu l’argile. Cu l’argile means with clay (literally, with the clay). Review: How Friulian prepositions contract with definite articles.

Verset 8

Podopo il Signôr Diu (thereupon the Lord God) al plantà un zardin tal Eden (planted a garden in Eden), de bande di soreli jevât (towards the east), e li al metè l’om che al veve fat (and there did he put the man whom he had made).

Vocabulary: podopo (thereupon), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), plantâ (to plant), il zardin (garden), la bande (side), il soreli (sun), jevâ (to arise), jevât (arisen), soreli jevât (east), li (there), meti (to put), un om (man), (to make).

The four cardinal points in Friulian are: nord, sud, est, ovest (north, south, east, west). In the text of this verse, you do not find est but soreli jevât, also meaning east. The Friulian for sun is il soreli; as for jevât (arisen), this is the past participle of the verb jevâ, meaning to arise. The opposite of soreli jevât is soreli bonât (west), where bonât is the past participle of the verb bonâ, meaning to set.

Examples of nord, sud, est, ovest: lâ a nord (to go north); a est il cîl al è nulât (to the east the sky is cloudy); viazâ bande est (to travel towards the east); une perturbazion di ovest (a disturbance from the west); la cueste sud de mont (the south side of the mountain). In those examples, the definite article is not used with the cardinal points for they refer to general directions; however, in the examples which follow, the definite article is used for the cardinal points are employed as nouns referring to defined geographic areas: il nord dal Friûl (the north of Friuli); un paîs dal est (a country of the east); il Portugal al è tal ovest de Europe (Portugal is in the west of Europe). Northern Italy and Southern Italy may be referred to as il Nord Italie and il Sud Italie: i problemis dal Nord Italie (the problems of Northern Italy); l’emigrazion dal Sud Italie (the emigration from Southern Italy).

Of soreli jevât, two more examples: la puarte e cjale a soreli jevât (the door looks to the east); la Slovenie e je a soreli jevât dal Friûl (Slovenia is to the east of Friuli). Another instance of soreli jevât is encountered in verse 14 ahead.

Verset 9

Il Signôr Diu al fasè butâ fûr de tiere (the Lord God made cast forth from the earth) ogni sorte di arbui (every sort of trees), che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju (which were a sight but to behold) e bogns di mangjâ (and good to eat), e l’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin (and the tree of life in the middle of the garden), e l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (and the tree of the knowledge of good and ill).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), butâ fûr (to cast forth), fâ butâ fûr (to make cast forth), la tiere (earth), ogni (every), la sorte (sort), un arbul (tree), il spetacul (sight), dome (but), viodi (to behold), bon (good), bogns (good; masculine plural), mangjâ (to eat), la vite (life), l’arbul de vite (tree of life), il mieç (middle), tal mieç (in the middle), il zardin (garden), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (ill), l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (tree of the knowledge of good and ill).

The Friulian for tree is the masculine arbul; its plural form is arbui. This is not the first instance where you see a masculine noun ending in a vowel + l form its plural with i rather than s; also encountered was il nemâl, i nemâi.

Che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju: which were a sight but to behold. The verb viodi means to see, to behold; viodiju translates literally as to see them; to behold them. The addition of ju (them) to viodi is a feature of Friulian which need not be transferred over into the English, for English resolves this by way of the use of which.

You have met with al jere before, meaning it was (or he was); this is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb jessi. Its third-person plural equivalent is a jerin (they were), which you find in the text of this verse. Consider the following: al è un spectacul; a son un spetacul (it is a sight; they are a sight); al jere un spetacul; a jerin un spetacul (it was a sight; they were a sight).

The adjective bon means good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); buine (feminine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buinis (feminine plural). In the text of this verse, you encounter bogns di mangjâ (good to eat), where bogns agrees in number and gender with arbui. Following is another example, this time using the feminine pome (fruit): pomis buinis di mangjâ (good fruits to eat; fruits {which are} good to eat).

L’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin: the tree of life in the middle of the garden. Tal is a contraction of in + il (in + the). Observe: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) vite (life) tal (in the) mieç (middle) dal (of the) zardin (garden).

L’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl: the tree of the knowledge of good and ill. Il ben is that which is good; il mâl is that which is ill. Cognossince is a feminine noun; this is made clear by the use of de before it, which is a contraction of di + la (of + the). Observe: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) cognossince (knowledge) dal (of the) ben (good) e (and) dal (of the) mâl (ill).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: saltâ fûr (to come forth), il flum (river), bagnâ (to wet), il zardin (garden), di li (thence), dividisi (to divide oneself), formâ (to form), cuatri (four), il braç (branch), prin (first), il non (name), girâ torator (to turn round about), la tiere (land), là che (where), l’aur (gold), chest (this), il paîs (country), rût (pure), cjatâsi (to be found), ancje (also), la pês (resin), nulî bon (to smell good), la piere (stone), l’onice (onyx), secont (second), dulintor (all round), tierç (third), scori (to flow), a soreli jevât di (to the east of), cuart (fourth).

Verse 10: Dal Eden al saltave fûr un flum par bagnâ il zardin (from Eden was a river coming forth to wet the garden) e di li si divideve par formâ cuatri braçs (and thence dividing itself to form four branches).Saltâ fûr (to come forth) is found here in its masculine, third-person singular form of the imperfet indicatîf, which is to say, al saltave fûr (it was coming forth). You find another example of the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf with si divideve, from the reflexive dividisi. The verb dividi means to divide {something}; the reflexive dividisi means to divide oneself. The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of si; consider the following: Diu al divideve il flum (God was dividing the river); il flum si divideve (the river was dividing itself).

Verses 11-12: Il prin al à non Pison (the first has for name Pishon): al gire torator de tiere di Avile (it turns round about the land of Havilah), là che al è aur (where there is gold); l’aur di chest paîs al è rût (the gold of this country is pure) e si cjate ancje pês ch’e nûl bon (and resin which smells good is also found there) e piere di onice (and onyx stone).Il prin: to be understood as il prin flum (the first river). Of nulî bon some examples: la pês e nûl bon (the resin smells good); pês ch’e nûl bon (resin which smells good); chestis rosis a nulissin bon (these flowers smell good). In that last example, la rose means flower; the Friulian for rose, on the other hand, is il garoful.

Verse 13: Il secont flum al à non Ghicon (the second river has for name Gihon): al gire dulintor de tiere di Kus (it turns all round the land of Cush). — Review ordinals from first to seventh: prin, secont, tierç, cuart, cuint, sest, setim. The feminine forms are: prime, seconde, tierce, cuarte, cuinte, seste, setime.

Verse 14: Il tierç flum al à non Tigri (the fourth river has for name Tigris): al scor a soreli jevât di Assur (it flows to the east of Asshur). Il cuart flum al è l’Eufrât: the fourth river is the Euphrates.

Versets 15-16

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), cjapâ (to take), un om (man), sistemâ (to install), il zardin (garden), lavorâ (to work), il vuardian (guardian), fâ di vuardian (to act as guardian), precetâ (to enjoin), cussì (so), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), dut (all), un arbul (tree).

Verse 15: Il Signôr Diu al cjapà l’om (the Lord God took the man) e lu sistemà tal zardin dal Eden (and installed him in the garden of Eden) par che lu lavoràs (that he should work it) e che al fasès di vuardian (and should act as guardian). — You encounter once again (see also verses 5 and 6) the masculine, third-person singular coniuntîf imperfet forms al fasès and al lavoràs, this time following the use of par che ({in order} that). As for vuardian, the spelling vuardean is also employed in this Bible.

Verse 16: E il Signôr Diu al precetà l’om cussì (and the Lord God enjoined the man so): tu puedis mangjâ di ducj i arbui dal zardin (you may eat of all the trees of the garden). — The verb podê means may, can, to be able. Observe: tu tu puedis (you may; you can; you are able); tu tu puedis fâ (you may do; you can do; you are able to do). In the same way that, for instance, lui al è may be expressed simply as al è, tu tu puedis may be expressed simply as tu puedis. In tu tu puedis, the tonic tu (which is the first one) is optional, but the atonic tu (which is the second one) is mandatory. The Friulian for tree is the masculine arbul; its plural form is arbui.

Say the following in Friulian: 1. all the houses; 2. all the kingdoms; 3. all the trees; 4. all the waters; 5. all month; 6. all evening. Answers: 1. dutis lis cjasis; 2. ducj i reams; 3. ducj i arbui; 4. dutis lis aghis; 5. dut il mês; 6. dute la sere.

Verset 17

Ma l’arbul (but the tree) de cognossince (of the knowledge) dal ben e dal mâl (of good and ill) no tu âs di mangjânt (are you not to eat thereof) parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs (for the day when you eat [will eat] thereof), tu murarâs (you shall die).

Vocabulary: ma (but), un arbul (tree), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (ill), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), mangjânt (to eat thereof), parcè che (for), la dì (day), murî (to die).

Vê di translates literally as to have to, but it may take various renderings in English; observe: al à di mangjâ (he has to eat; he must eat; he is to eat); tu âs di mangjâ (you have to eat; you must eat; you are to eat); nol à di mangjâ (he has not to eat; he must not eat; he is not to eat); no tu âs di mangjâ (you have not to eat; you must not eat; you are not to eat). Review: Present indicative of the Friulian verb .

In the text of this verse, encountered is no tu âs di mangjânt; the nt ending of mangjânt means thereof, or of it. No tu âs di mangjânt, then, means you are not to eat thereof. In parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, the ’nt also means thereof: parcè che (for) la dì che (the day when) tu ’nt mangjarâs (you eat [will eat] thereof). Note that ’nt is placed before the conjugated verb, but attached to the end of an infinitive: tu ’nt mangjarâs; mangjânt.

Tu mangjarâs (you will eat) is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ. Tu murarâs (you will die) is the same of the verb murî (to die).

(day) will be found expressed in Friulian as both a masculine and feminine noun. For instance, the first day may be expressed as il prin dì, la prime dì or even la prime zornade, but is always masculine with cardinals number: trê dîs di viaç (three days’ journey); dopo chei cinc dîs (after those five days). The plural form is dîs for both the masculine and feminine.

Verset 18

Il Signôr Diu al disè (the Lord God said): nol è ben (it is not good) che l’om al sedi dibessôl (that the man should be on his own). Mi tocje dâi un jutori (I must give to him a helper) che al sedi il so spieli (who may be his counterpart).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to say), nol è ben (it is not good), un om (man), dibessôl (on one’s own), tocjâi a (to fall to one’s lot), mi tocje (I must), (to give), dâi (to give to him), il jutori (helper), il spieli (counterpart).

Nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl: it is not good that the man should be on his own. Al sedi is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi. Consider: l’om al è dibessôl (the man is on his own); nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl (it is not good that the man should be on his own).

Mi tocje dâi un jutori: I must give to him a helper. The literal, base meaning of the verb tocjâ is to touch; for instance, al tocje means he touches. As for tocjâi a (literally, to touch unto), this means to fall to one’s lot. Examples: ti tocje studiâ (you must study; it falls to your lot to study [it touches unto you to study]); mi tocje dâ (I must give; it falls to my lot to give [it touches unto me to give]).

Whereas means to give, dâi means to give to him, where i (unto him) is attached to the infinitive: dâi un jutori (to give a helper to him).

The Friulian for mirror is the masculine spieli; in the context of this verse, it is read as counterpart.

Verset 19

Il Signôr Diu al fasè, simpri cul pulvin, il stamp di dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (the Lord God made, ever with dust, the form of all the wild beasts) e di ducj i ucei dal cîl (and of all the birds of the heaven), e ju menà denant dal om (and led them before the man) par che ur metès un non (that unto them he should put a name): ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non (each ought to have borne the name) che l’om i varès metût (that unto it the man would have put).

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), fâ il stamp di (to make the form of), simpri (ever), il pulvin (dust), dut (all), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), menâ (to lead), denant di (before), un om (man), il non (name), meti (to put), ognidun (each), vê di (to have to), puartâ (to bear).

Ju (direct object) means them; ur (indirect object) means unto them. Consider: e ju menà (and he led them) denant dal om (before the man) par che ur metès un non (that unto them he should put a name). Al metès is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet.

Al varès (he would have) is the third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê; by combining this with a past participle, you form the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl passât: al varès metût (he would have put). When followed by di, sense of obligation is introduced; al varès vût di puartâ il non (it ought to have borne the name).

Verset 20

E cussì (and so) l’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis, ai ucei dal cîl e a dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (the man put the names unto all the beasts, unto the birds of the heaven and unto all the wild beasts), ma, pal om, no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli (but for the man a helper was not found who might be his counterpart).

Vocabulary: cussì (so), un om (man), meti (to put), il non (name), dut (all), la bestie (beast), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), salvadi (wild), ma (but), pal om (for the man), cjatâsi (to be found), un jutori (helper), il spieli (counterpart).

L’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis: the man put the names unto all the beasts. Ur: unto them. Note that Friulian makes a repetition of unto: l’om (the man) ur metè (unto them put) i nons (the names) a dutis lis bestiis (unto all the beasts).

Pal is a contraction of par (for) and the masculine definite article il; pal om, then, means for the man. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

Al fos is in the same tense as al metès, al fasès, al lavoràs: it is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. First consider: no si cjate un jutori che al sedi il so spieli: no si cjate (is not found) un jutori (a helper) che al sedi (who may be) il so spieli (his counterpart). Now consider: no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli: no si cjatà (was not found) un jutori (a helper) che al fos (who might be) il so spieli (his counterpart).

Verset 21

Alore il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) i fasè vignî al om une sium tant grande (made come unto the man a sleepiness so great) che s’indurmidì (that he fell asleep). I gjavà une cueste des sôs (he withdrew a rib of his) e al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest (and closed the flesh again in its place).

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), vignî (to come), fâ vignî (to make come), un om (man), la sium (sleepiness), grant (great), tant grant che (so great that), indurmidîsi (to fall asleep), gjavâ (to withdraw), la cueste (rib), sierâ (to close), tornâ a sierâ (to close again), la cjar (flesh), il puest (place).

The adjective grant means great; thus are its four forms: grant (masculine singular); grande (feminine singular); grancj (masculine plural), grandis (feminine plural).

The reflexive indurmidîsi means to fall asleep; it is found employed in the third-person singular of the passât sempliç: s’indurmidì (he fell asleep).

I gjavà une cueste des sôs: he withdrew a rib of his. Observe: i ({from} unto him) gjavà (did he withdraw; he withdrew) une cueste (a rib) des sôs (of his). Des sôs means of his, where des is a contraction of di + lis; by des sôs, that which is understood is des sôs cuestis (of his ribs). Consider: la cueste (the rib); lis cuestis (the ribs); la sô cueste (his rib); lis sôs cuestis (his ribs); de sô cueste (of his rib); des sôs cuestis (of his ribs); i gjavà une cueste des sôs (he withdrew a rib of his).

Al tornà a sierâ la cjar: he closed the flesh again. The verb tornâ (to return) may be used to convey that which English does with again, anew, back, or with re prefixed to a verb: sierâ (to close); tornâ a sierâ (to close again). More examples: considerâ; tornâ a considerâ (to consider; to reconsider); doprâ; tornâ a doprâ (to use; to reuse).

Versets 22-23

Vocabulary: po (then), la cueste (rib), tirâ vie (to draw forth), un om (man), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), la femine (woman), menâ (to lead), denant di (before), alore (then), (to say), chest (this), la volte (time), cheste volte mo sì che (now indeed), il vuès (bone), la cjar (flesh), clamâ (to call), clamâsi (to be called), par vie che (given that), gjavâ fûr (to withdraw forth).

Verse 22: Po cu la cueste (then with the rib) che i veve tirât vie al om (which he had drawn forth from the man) il Signôr Diu al fasè une femine (did the Lord God make a woman) e le menà denant dal om (and he led her before the man).

Verse 23: Alore chel al disè (then that one said): cheste volte mo sì ch’e je vuès dai miei vues (now indeed is she bone of my bones) e cjar de mê cjar (and flesh of my flesh). Cheste si clamarà femine (this one shall be called woman) par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om (given that she was withdrawn forth from man). — The Friulian for bone is the masculine vuès (or vues), with its plural vues; the text employs the accented vuès in the singular, as some speakers pronounce a distinction between singular and plural. In the Hebrew, the woman is called ish-shah for she was taken out of man, called ish; the connexion between ish (man) and ish-shah (woman) is patent in the Hebrew but lost in the Friulian om and femine. Gjavâ fûr is used passively in the text of this verse; consider these active and passive examples: al à gjavât fûr; al è stât gjavât fûr (he has withdrawn forth; he was withdrawn forth); e à gjavât fûr; e je stade gjavade fûr (she has withdrawn forth; she was withdrawn forth). Supplementary examples of clamâsi: mi clami Isac (I am called Isaac); si clame Jacop (he is called Jacob).

Versets 24-25

Vocabulary: par chel (therefore), un om (man), bandonâ (to forsake), il pari (father), la mari (mother), tirâsi dongje (to draw oneself alongside), la femine (wife), deventâ (to become), la cjar (flesh), sôl (single), une cjar sole (single flesh), doi (two), ducj i doi (both {of them}), crot (naked), tant… che (as much… as), il rivuart (apprehension), un dal altri (the one of the other).

Verse 24: Par chel l’om al bandone so pari e sô mari (therefore man forsakes his father and his mother) e si tire dongje de sô femine (and draws himself alongside his wife) e a deventin une cjar sole (and they become a single flesh). — The Friulian for father is the masculine pari; for mother, it is the feminine mari. So pari means his father; her father; sô mari means his mother; her mother.

Verse 25: A jerin, po, ducj i doi crots (and so they were both naked), tant l’om che la femine (as much the man as the woman), *ma no vevin rivuart un dal altri* (but they were not apprehensive the one of the other). — *The masculine rivuart is cognate with the English regard; the sense of it here is apprehension. Taken apart: ma (but) no vevin (they had not) rivuart (apprehension) un dal altri (the one of the other).