Continue now your study of the Friulian language as used in the book of Genesis by reading the second chapter, which treats of: il paradîs dal Eden (paradise of Eden), also called il zardin dal Eden (garden of Eden).
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.
Read Gjenesi 2
Vocabulary: cussì (thus, so), meti (to put), il puest (place), meti a puest (to put in place), il cîl (heaven, sky), la tiere (earth, land), cun (with), dut (all), la schirie (array, host).
Cussì a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere: thus were put in place the heaven and the earth. The verb meti means to put; its past participle is metût. Observe: jessi (to be); a son (they are); a son stâts (they were); a son stâts metûts (they were put); a son stâts metûts a puest (they were put in place).
A son stâts is the third-person plural of the passât prossim of the verb jessi, where stât is the past participle of this verb: al è stât (he was); a son stâts (they were). Because the passât prossim has been formed here with the auxiliary jessi, the past participle stât must agree in gender and number with its subject. (Some verbs take vê as their auxiliary in the passât prossim; others take the verb jessi.) Consider the following: al à metût; a àn metût (he put; they put); o soi stât; al è stât; a son stâts (I was; he was; they were); e à metût; e je stade (she put; she was).
In the text of this verse, you find a son stâts metûts, meaning they were put in place. In this passive construction, metût must also agree in gender and number with the subject. Observe: al à metût; al è stât metût (he put; he was put); e à metût; e je stade metude (she put; she was put); a àn metût; a son stâts metûts (they put; they were put [masculine plural]); a àn metût; a son stadis metudis (they put; they were put [feminine plural]).
Review: Present indicative of the verb jessi. You must know this conjugation in order to create the passive constructions seen above. For example, he is in Friulian is al è; you must know this in order to say al è stât metût (he was put). Similarly, she is in Friulian is e je; you must know this in order to say e je stade metude (she was put).
In the text of this verse, a son stâts metûts agrees in gender and number with il cîl e la tiere. Because you have here one masculine noun (il cîl) and one feminine noun (la tiere), the agreement is made with the masculine plural. If you had two masculine nouns, the agreement would also be made with the masculine plural. If you had two feminine nouns, the agreement would be made with the feminine plural; for example: l’aghe e la tiere a son stadis metudis (the water and the earth were put).
Cun dutis lis lôr schiriis: with all their array (arrays). Review: Friulian possessive adjectives. Schiriis is the plural of the feminine schirie, meaning array; it also means military formation, military line-up.
Vocabulary: Diu (God), finî (to finish), la vore (work), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), la setime zornade (seventh day), polsâ (to rest), fâ (to make, to do).
Diu al finì la sô vore te setime zornade: God finished his work on the seventh day. Te is a contraction in + la (in + the): te setime zornade (on [in] the seventh day). The text continues: e te setime zornade (and on the seventh day) al polsà (he rested) di dute la vore (from all the work) che al veve fate (that he had done).
In che al veve fate, the past participle fat has taken its feminine singular form fate to agree with the feminine singular vore preceding it. Consider the following: il cîl che al veve fat (the heaven that he had made); la vore che al veve fate (the work that he had done).
The Friulian for seventh is setim (masculine); setime (feminine). Observe these feminine forms (first to seventh): la prime zornade; la seconde zornade; la tierce zornade; la cuarte zornade; la cuinte zornade; la seste zornade; la setime zornade. Masculine: il prin libri; il secont libri; il tierç libri; il cuart libri; il cuint libri; il sest libri; il setim libri.
Vocabulary: Diu (God), benedî (to bless), setim (seventh), la zornade (day), sant (holy), fâ sant (to make holy), parcè che (because, for), polsâ di (to rest from), dut (all), la vore (work), la creazion (creation).
Diu al benedì la setime zornade: God blessed the seventh day.
The adjective sant means holy; its four forms are sant (masculine singular), sants (masculine plural), sante (feminine singular) and santis (feminine plural). You read: e le fasè sante (and he made it holy); le (it) stands in for la zornade and sant takes its feminine singular form sante to agree with it. Le is the feminine equivalent of lu, already encountered: [Diu] lu creà sul stamp di Diu (Gjenesi 1:27). You have also seen the plural ju: [Diu] ju creà mascjo e femine.
In the presence of lu, le, ju, the atonic pronouns al, e, a are not expressed. Observe: Diu al creà; Diu lu creà (God created; God created it [him]); Diu al fasè; Diu le fasè (God made; God made it [her]); Diu al creà; Diu ju creà (God created; God created them).
The text of the verse continues: parcè che al veve polsât (because he had rested) di dute la vore (from all the work) de creazion (of [the] creation). De is a contraction of di + la (of + the).
Consider the following: al fasè (he made); al à fat (he made; he has made); al veve fat (he had made). Consider also: al polsà (he rested); al à polsât (he rested; he has rested); al veve polsât (he had rested).
Vocabulary: chest (this), la storie (story, account, history), il cîl (heaven, sky), la tiere (earth, land), cuant che (when), creâ (to create), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), fâ (to make, to do).
The feminine noun storie can be taken as meaning story, account, history. E je cheste la storie dal cîl e de tiere: such is (it is this) the story of the heaven and the earth. Chest means this; its feminine form is cheste. Observe: al è chest (it is this); e je cheste (it is this). Review the four forms taken by chest: chest (masculine singular); cheste (feminine singular); chescj (masculine plural); chestis (feminine plural). The following examples use the masculine nouns paîs and ream, and the feminine nouns peraule and robe: chest paîs (this country); chescj reams (these kingdoms); cheste peraule (this word); chestis robis (these things).
Cuant che a forin creâts: when they were created. Friulian can express he created using either the passât sempliç (that is, al creà) or the passât prossim (that is, al à creât). To say it was, these same two tenses can be used: al fo or al è stât. In similar fashion, the passive it was created can be expressed two ways: al fo creât; al è stât creât. As for the plural they were, this can be expressed as: a forin; a son stâts. The passive they were created can be expressed as: a forin creâts; a son stâts creâts. The passât sempliç is especially a written form, with colloquial usage preferring the passât prossim.
Cuant che il Signôr Diu al fasè la tiere e il cîl: when the Lord God made the earth and the heaven.
Vocabulary: nol jere (there was not), ancjemò (yet, still), nissun (no, not any), il sterp (shrub), la tiere (earth, land, ground, soil), dâ fûr (to put [give] forth), la sorte (sort, kind), la jerbe (grass), parcè che (because, for), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), plovi (to rain), fâ plovi (to cause to rain, to make it rain), un om (man), lavorâ (to work).
Nol jere ancjemò nissun sterp su la tiere: there was yet no shrub on the earth; there was not yet any shrub on the earth. Nol jere can be taken here in the sense of there was not; its present time equivalent would be nol è. Supplementary examples of nissun (no, not any): nissune pôre (no fear); nissun libri (no book); nissun paîs (no country); nissune femine (no woman). Nissune is the feminine form of nissun.
E no veve ancjemò dât fûr nissune sorte di jerbe: and it had not yet put forth any sort of grass. In the context of this verse, dâ fûr can also be understood as meaning to sprout, to germinate. From the text, it is clear that it is the earth that had not yet put forth any shrub because of the use of no veve; this is a feminine form which can only refer in this context to the feminine tiere. Observe: l’om nol veve dât fûr (the man had not put [given] forth); la tiere no veve dât fûr (the earth had not put [given] forth). The masculine form uses nol, whereas the feminine uses no.
Parcè che il Signôr Diu nol veve fat plovi su la tiere: because the Lord God had not made it rain upon the earth. The masculine nol veve fat (had not made) is used here to agree with its masculine subject il Signôr Diu; had the subject been feminine, it would have read no veve fat. Plovi means to rain; fâ plovi means to make (it) rain; to cause to rain.
E nol jere om che al lavoràs la tiere: and there was not man to till the ground (work the earth); literally, and there was not man who was working the earth. The verb lavorâ means to work; lavorâ la tiere can be taken as to work the earth, to till the ground. In this verse, you encounter al lavoràs, which is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. Consider the following: l’om al lavore (the man works); l’om al lavorave (the man was working); nol è om che al lavori (there is not [any] man who works); nol jere om che al lavoràs (there was not [any] man who was working).
Vocabulary: vignî fûr (to come forth), fâ vignî fûr (to make come forth), la aghe (water), la tiere (earth, land), bagnâ (to wet, to water), il teren (ground), dulintor (surrounding, round about), alore (then), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), fâ (to make, to do), il stamp (form, stamp), fâ il stamp di (to form, to make the form of), un om (man), l’argile (clay), soflà (to blow), la buse (hole), il nâs (nose), la buse dal nâs (nostril), la soflade (breath), la vite (life), deventâ (to become), la creature (creature), vivent (living).
Verse 6: [Nol jere om] che al fasès vignî fûr aghe de tiere: there was not man to make water come forth from the earth. [Nol jere om] che al bagnàs il teren dulintor: there was not man to water the surrounding ground. Both fâ and bagnâ are found in the text of this verse in the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet as al fasès and al bagnàs.
Verse 7: Fâ il stamp di (to make the form of) can be taken as to form. You read: alore il Signôr Diu al fasè il stamp dal om (then the Lord God formed man) cu l’argile (from [with] clay), i soflà tes busis dal nâs (he blew into his nostrils [into the holes of the nose unto him]) une soflade di vite (a breath of life) e l’om al deventà une creature vivent (and man became a living creature). L’argile is a feminine noun meaning clay; when cun (with) comes into contact with a feminine noun using the definite article l’, it becomes cu l’, as in cu l’argile. Review: How Friulian prepositions contract with definite articles. La buse is the Friulian for hole, and the Friulian for nose is il nâs; tes busis dal nâs, then, means in(to) the nostrils (literally, in[to] the holes of the nose). In combines with lis to form tes.
Vocabulary: podopo (then), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), plantâ (to plant), il zardin (garden), la bande (side), il soreli (sun), jevâ (to rise), soreli jevât (east), de bande di soreli jevât (to the east, eastwards), li (there), meti (to put, to place), un om (man), fâ (to make, to do).
The text of this verse begins: podopo il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) al plantà un zardin tal Eden (planted a garden in Eden), de bande di soreli jevât (to the east). The four cardinal points in Friulian are: nord, sud, est, ovest (north, south, east, west). In the text of this verse, you do not find est but soreli jevât, also meaning east. The Friulian for sun is il soreli; jevât (risen) is the past participle of the verb jevâ, meaning to rise. The opposite of soreli jevât is soreli bonât (west), where bonât is the past participle of the verb bonâ, meaning to set.
Examples of nord, sud, est, ovest: lâ a nord (to go north); a est il cîl al è nulât (to the east the sky is cloudy); viazâ bande est (to travel towards the east); une perturbazion di ovest (a disturbance from the west); la cueste sud de mont (the south side of the mountain). In these examples, the definite article is not used with the cardinal points because they refer to general directions; however, in the examples that follow, the definite article is used because the cardinal points are used as nouns referring to defined geographic areas: il nord dal Friûl (the north of Friuli); un paîs dal est (a country in [of] the east); il Portugal al è tal ovest de Europe (Portugal is in the west of Europe). Northern Italy and Southern Italy can be referred to as il Nord Italie and il Sud Italie: i problemis dal Nord Italie (the problems of Northern Italy; il probleme, problem); l’emigrazion dal Sud Italie (the emigration from Southern Italy).
You will find another example of soreli jevât in verse 14 ahead. Following are two more examples of it, the first taken from Ezechiel 46:1: la puarte […] e cjale a soreli jevât (the door looks to the east; cjalâ, to look); la Slovenie e je a soreli jevât dal Friûl (Slovenia is to the east of Friuli).
E li al metè l’om che al veve fat: and there he put the man whom he had made.
Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), butâ fûr (to come forth), fâ butâ fûr (to make come forth), la tiere (earth, ground, land, soil), ogni (every), la sorte (sort, kind), un arbul (tree), il spetacul (sight), dome (only, just), viodi (to see, to behold), bon (good), bogns (good; masculine plural), mangjâ (to eat), la vite (life), l’arbul de vite (tree of life), il mieç (middle), tal mieç (in the middle, in the midst), il zardin (garden), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (bad, evil), l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (tree of the knowledge of good and bad).
Il Signôr Diu al fasè butâ fûr de tiere ogni sorte di arbui: the Lord God made come forth from the earth every sort of tree (trees). The Friulian for tree is the masculine arbul; its plural form is arbui. This is not the first time that you are seeing a masculine noun ending in a vowel + l form its plural with i rather than s; you have also encountered il nemâl, i nemâi.
The verb viodi means to see, to behold; viodiju means to see them; to behold them. Of the trees, you read: che a jerin un spetacul dome a viodiju (which were a sight just to behold [behold them]) e bogns di mangjâ (and good to eat).
You have met with al jere before, meaning it was (or he was); this is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb jessi. Its third-person plural equivalent is a jerin (they were), which you find in the text of this verse. Consider the following: al è un spectacul; a son un spetacul (it is a sight; they are a sight); al jere un spetacul; a jerin un spetacul (it was a sight; they were a sight).
The adjective bon means good; its four forms are: bon (masculine singular); buine (feminine singular); bogns (masculine plural); buinis (feminine plural). In the text of this verse, you encounter bogns di mangjâ (good to eat), where bogns agrees in number and gender with arbui. Following is another example, this time using the feminine robe (thing): robis buinis di mangjâ (good things to eat; things [that are] good to eat).
L’arbul de vite tal mieç dal zardin: the tree of life in the middle of the garden. Tal is a contraction of in + il (in + the). Taken literally: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) vite (life) tal (in the) mieç (middle) dal (of the) zardin (garden).
L’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl: the tree of the knowledge of good and bad (or, more commonly in English, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil). Il ben is that which is good; il mâl is that which is bad or evil. Cognossince is a feminine noun; this is made clear by the use of de before it, which is a contraction of di + la (of + the). Taken literally: l’arbul (the tree) de (of the) cognossince (knowledge) dal (of the) ben (good) e (and) dal (of the) mâl (bad).
Vocabulary: saltâ fûr (to come forth), il flum (river), bagnâ (to wet, to water), il zardin (garden), di li (from there), dividisi (to split up, to divide oneself), formâ (to form), cuatri (four), il braç (arm, branch), prin (first), il non (name), vê non (to be named), girâ (to turn), torator (round about), la tiere (land, earth), là che (where, there where), l’aur (gold), chest (this), il paîs (land, country), rût (pure), cjatâ (to find), cjatâsi (to be found), ancje (also, too), la pês (resin), nulî bon (to smell good), la piere (stone), l’onice (onyx), secont (second), dulintor (round about), tierç (third), scori (to flow), a soreli jevât di (to the east of), cuart (fourth).
Verse 10: Dal Eden al saltave fûr un flum par bagnâ il zardin: from Eden a river came forth (was coming forth) to water the garden. In the context of this verse, saltâ fûr (to come forth, to come out) can also be taken as to flow out. It is found here in its masculine, third-person singular form of the imperfet indicatîf — al saltave fûr (it was coming forth; it was coming out). E di li si divideve par formâ cuatri braçs: and from there it split (was dividing itself) to form four branches. You find another example of the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf with si divideve, from the reflexive verb dividisi. The verb dividi means to divide (something); the reflexive verb dividisi means to divide oneself. The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of si; consider the following: Diu al divideve il flum (God was dividing the river); il flum si divideve (the river was dividing itself).
Verse 11: Il prin al à non Pison: the first is named (has [the] name) Pishon. Il prin is to be understood as meaning il prin flum (the first river). Al gire torator de tiere di Avile: it goes round about the land of Havilah. The verb girâ means to turn, and torator means round about; girâ torator can be taken here as to go round about, to go around. Là che al è aur: where there is gold (there where there is gold). Là means there; là che is to be taken as where (literally, there where [there that]). Al è is to be taken here as there is.
Verse 12: L’aur di chest paîs al è rût: the gold of this land is pure. Si cjate ancje pês ch’e nûl bon: resin that smells good is also found. The expression nulî bon means to smell good; examples: la pês e nûl bon (the resin smells good); pês ch’e nûl bon (resin that smells good); chestis rosis a nulissin bon (these flowers smell good). In that last example, la rose means flower; the Friulian for rose, on the other hand, is il garoful. Piere di onice: onyx stone, where the feminine piere means stone, and the feminine onice means onyx.
Verse 13: Il secont flum al à non Ghicon (the second river is named Gihon): al gire dulintor de tiere di Kus (it goes round about the land of Cush). Girâ dulintor is synonymous with girâ torator from the eleventh verse. Review ordinal numbers from first to seventh: prin, secont, tierç, cuart, cuint, sest, setim. The feminine forms are: prime, seconde, tierce, cuarte, cuinte, seste, setime.
Verse 14: Il tierç flum al à non Tigri (the fourth river is named Tigris): al scor a soreli jevât di Assur (it flows to the east of Asshur). Il cuart flum al è l’Eufrât: the fourth river is the Euphrates.
Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), cjapâ (to take), un om (man), sistemâ (to place), il zardin (garden), par che (in order that, so that), lavorâ (to work), il vuardian (guardian, custodian), fâ di vuardian (to act as guardian, to serve as custodian), precetâ (to command), cussì (thus, so), podê (can, may, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), dut (all), un arbul (tree).
Verse 15: You encounter once again (see also verses 5 and 6) the masculine, third-person singular coniuntîf imperfet forms al fasès and al lavoràs, this time following the use of par che (in order that, so that). You read: il Signôr Diu al cjapà l’om (the Lord God took the man) e lu sistemà tal zardin dal Eden (and placed him in the garden of Eden) par che lu lavoràs (in order that he till [work] it) e che al fasès di vuardian (and that he act as custodian [guardian]). Observe: al lavore; par che al lavori; par che al lavoràs (he works; in order that he work; in order that he worked [was working]); al fâs; par che al fasi; par che al fasès (he does; in order that he do; in order that he did [was doing]).
Verse 16: E il Signôr Diu al precetà l’om cussì: and the Lord God commanded the man thus. The verb podê means can, may, to be able. Observe: tu tu puedis (you can; you may; you are able); tu tu puedis mangjâ (you can eat; you may eat; you are able to eat). The Lord says to the man: tu puedis mangjâ di ducj i arbui dal zardin (you may eat of all the trees of the garden). In the same way that, for example, lui al è can be expressed simply as al è, tu tu puedis can be expressed simply as tu puedis. In tu tu puedis, the tonic (first) tu is optional, but the atonic (second) tu is mandatory. The Friulian for tree is the masculine arbul; its plural form is arbui. Di ducj i arbui means of all the trees.
Say the following in Friulian:
- all the houses
- all the kingdoms
- all the trees
- all the waters
- all month
- all evening
- dutis lis cjasis
- ducj i reams
- ducj i arbui
- dutis lis aghis
- dut il mês
- dute la sere
Vocabulary: ma (but), un arbul (tree), la cognossince (knowledge), il ben (good), il mâl (bad, evil), vê di (must, to have to), mangjâ (to eat), mangjânt (to eat of it, to eat thereof), parcè che (because, for), la dì (day), murî (to die).
The Lord continues his command: ma l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (but the tree of the knowledge of good and bad) no tu âs di mangjânt (you must not eat of it) parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs (for the day that you eat [will eat] of it), tu murarâs (you shall die).
Vê di means must, to have to; observe: al à di mangjâ (he has to eat; he must eat); tu âs di mangjâ (you have to eat; you must eat); nol à di mangjâ (he must not eat; he is not to eat); no tu âs di mangjâ (you must not eat; you are not to eat). Review: Present indicative of the Friulian verb vê. In the text of this verse, you find no tu âs di mangjânt; the nt ending of mangjânt means of it, thereof. No tu âs di mangjânt, then, means you must not eat of it; you are not to eat thereof. In parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, the ’nt also means of it, thereof: parcè che (for) la dì che (the day that) tu ’nt mangjarâs (you thereof will eat). Note that ’nt is placed before the conjugated verb, but attached to the end of the infinitive: tu ’nt mangjarâs; mangjânt.
Tu mangjarâs (you will eat) is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ. Tu murarâs (you will die) is the same of the verb murî (to die).
Dì (day) can be found expressed in Friulian as either a masculine or feminine noun; for example, the first day might be expressed as il prin dì, la prime dì or even la prime zornade.
Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), dî (to say), nol è ben (it is not good, it is not right), un om (man), dibessôl (alone, on one’s own), tocjâ (to touch), mi tocje (I must), dâ (to give), il jutori (helper), il spieli (mirror, counterpart).
The Lord says: nol è ben (it is not good) che l’om al sedi dibessôl (that the man be alone). Al sedi is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi. He continues: mi tocje dâi un jutori che al sedi il so spieli (I shall [I must] give him a helper to be his counterpart); taken literally: mi tocje (it falls [touches] unto me) dâi (to give unto him) un jutori (a helper) che al sedi (who may be) il so spieli (his counterpart [mirror]). The basic meaning of the verb tocjâ is to touch: al tocje (he touches). The sense of mi tocje dâ (literally, it touches unto me to give) is it falls unto me to give; that which “touches unto” one is an obligation — that is, I must give. Another example: ti tocje studiâ (you must study). Whereas dâ means to give, dâi means to give to him, where i (unto him) has been attached to the infinitive. The Friulian for mirror is the masculine spieli; in this context, it can be taken as counterpart.
Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), fâ il stamp di (to form, to make the form of), simpri (again, yet), il pulvin (dust), dut (all), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), menâ (to bring, to lead), denant di (before, in front of), un om (man), par che (in order that, so that), il non (name), meti (to put, to place), ognidun (each one, each of them), vê di (must, to have to), puartâ (to bear, to carry).
You read: il Signôr Diu al fasè (the Lord God made), simpri cul pulvin (yet with dust), il stamp di (the form of) dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (all the wild beasts) e di ducj i ucei dal cîl (and of all the birds of the heaven); that is, and the Lord God formed, yet with dust, all the wild beasts and birds of the heaven.
Ju (direct object) means them; ur (indirect object) means unto them. The text of this verse continues: e ju menà (and he brought them) denant dal om (before the man) par che (in order that) ur metès un non (unto them he put [was putting] a name); that is, and he brought them before the man so that he would name them. Al metès is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. Consider the following: al met (he puts); par che al meti (so that he puts); al meteve (he was putting); par che al metès (so that he was putting).
The verse continues: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ (each would have had to bear) il non (the name) che l’om (that the man) i varès metût (unto them would have put); that is, each was to bear the name given to them by the man. Vê di means must, to have to: vê di puartâ (to have to bear); al à vût di puartâ (he had to bear). Al varès (he would have) is the third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê; by combining this with a past participle, you form the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl passât: al varès metût (he would have put); al varès puartât (he would have borne). Consider also the following: al à vût; al varès vût (he had; he would have had); al à metût; al varès metût (he put; he would have put); al à vût di puartâ; al varès vût di puartâ (he had to bear; he would have had to bear); ognidun al varès vût di puartâ (each one would have had to bear); il non che l’om i varès metût (the name that the man would have put unto it).
Vocabulary: cussì (thus, so), un om (man), meti (to put, to place), il non (name), dut (all), la bestie (beast), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), salvadi (wild), ma (but), pal om (for the man), cjatâ (to find), cjatâsi (to be found), un jutori (helper), il spieli (mirror, counterpart).
You find another example now of ur (unto them): e cussì (and so) l’om ur metè i nons a dutis lis bestiis (the man put the names unto all the beasts), ai ucei dal cîl (unto the birds of the heaven) e a dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (and unto all the wild beasts). Note that Friulian makes a repetition: l’om / ur metè / i nons / a dutis lis bestiis (the man / unto them / put the names / unto all the beasts).
Pal is a contraction of par (for) and the masculine definite article il; pal om, then, means for the man. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. You read: ma, pal om (but, for the man), no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli (a helper to be his counterpart was not found). Al fos is in the same tense as al metès, al fasès, al lavoràs: it is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. Consider: no si cjate / un jutori / che al sedi / il so spieli (is not found / a helper / who may be / his counterpart); no si cjatà / un jutori / che al fos / il so spieli (was not found / a helper / who may be / his counterpart).
Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), vignî (to come), fâ vignî (to make come), un om (man), la sium (sleep), grant (great, big), tant grant che (so great that), indurmidîsi (to fall asleep), gjavâ (to remove, to take out), la cueste (rib), sierâ (to close up), tornâ a sierâ (to close back up), la cjar (flesh), il puest (place).
The Lord casts a deep sleep upon the man: alore il Signôr Diu (then the Lord God) i fasè vignî al om (made come upon the man) une sium tant grande (a sleep so great) che s’indurmidì (that he fell asleep). The adjective grant means big, great; its four forms are: grant (masculine singular); grande (feminine singular); grancj (masculine plural), grandis (feminine plural). In context, une sium tant grande che can also be taken as a sleep so heavy that; a sleep so deep that. The reflexive verb indurmidîsi means to fall asleep; you find it used here in the third-person singular of the passât sempliç: s’indurmidì (he fell asleep).
I gjavà une cueste des sôs: he removed one of his ribs; taken literally: i gjavà ([from] unto him he removed) une cueste (a rib) des sôs (of his). In une cueste des sôs (a rib of his), des sôs means of his, where des is a contraction of di + lis. The feminine plural lis sôs is used because it refers to the feminine plural lis cuestis.
Al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest: he closed the flesh back up in its place. The verb tornâ can be used to convey what English does with anew, back, again, or with re prefixed to a verb: tornâ a sierâ (to close back up, to close again, to close anew). More examples: considerâ; tornâ a considerâ (to consider; to reconsider); doprâ; tornâ a doprâ (to use; to reuse, to use anew).
Vocabulary: po (then), la cueste (rib), tirâ vie (to remove, to take out), un om (man), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), fâ (to make, to do), la femine (woman), menâ (to bring, to lead), denant di (before, in front of), alore (then), dî (to say), chest (this), la volte (time), cheste volte mo sì (now at last, now indeed), il vues (bone), la cjar (flesh), clamâ (to call), clamâsi (to be called), par vie che (given that), gjavâ fûr (to remove, to take out).
Verse 22: Po cu la cueste (then with the rib) che i veve tirât vie al om (that he had removed from the man) il Signôr Diu al fasè une femine (the Lord God made a woman) e le menà denant dal om (and he brought her before the man).
Verse 23: Alore chel al disè: then he said; chel (that one) refers to the man. The Friulian for bone is il vues, with its plural i vues; the text uses the accented il vuès in the singular and non-accented i vues in the plural — some speakers make a distinction in pronunciation between singular and plural. The man says: cheste volte mo sì ch’e je vuès dai miei vues (now at last it is that she is bone of my bones; now indeed it is that she is bone of my bones) e cjar de mê cjar (and flesh of my flesh). He names the woman: cheste si clamarà femine (this one shall be called woman) par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om (given that she was taken out of man). In the Hebrew, the woman is called ish-shah because she was taken out of man, called ish; the connection between ish (man) and ish-shah (woman) is obvious but is lost in the Friulian om and femine. Gjavâ fûr is used passively in the text of this verse; consider these active and passive examples: al à gjavât fûr; al è stât gjavât fûr (he took out; he was taken out); e à gjavât fûr; e je stade gjavade fûr (she took out; she was taken out). Supplementary examples of clamâsi: mi clami Marco (I am called Marco); si clame Renzo (he is called Renzo).
Vocabulary: par chel (hence, for this reason), un om (man), bandonâ (to leave), il pari (father), la mari (mother), tirâsi dongje (to draw near, to draw close), la femine (wife, woman), deventâ (to become), la cjar (flesh), sôl (single, solitary), une cjar sole (single flesh), po (then), doi (two), ducj i doi (both of them), crot (naked), tant l’om che la femine (the man and woman alike), vê rivuart di (to shy away from), un dal altri (from one another).
Verse 24: Par chel (hence) l’om al bandone so pari (man leaves his father) e sô mari (and his mother) e si tire dongje de sô femine (and draws close to his wife) e a deventin une cjar sole (and they become a single flesh). The Friulian for father is the masculine pari; for mother, it is the feminine mari. So pari means his father; her father; sô mari means his mother; her mother.
Verse 25: A jerin, po, ducj i doi crots (and they were both naked), tant l’om che la femine (the man and woman alike), ma no vevin rivuart un dal altri (but they were not shying away from one another). The masculine rivuart is cognate with the English regard; the sense of it here is concern.