Friulian language series: Gjenesi 2:1-3, tal imprin

This post continues your study of the Friulian language as used in the book of Genesis; you will now begin your study of the second chapter. In this post, you will examine verses 1-3. All three posts pertaining to chapter 2 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 2:1-3

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 2:1-3. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

Recall that cussì means thus. Recall also that the verb meti means to put; its past participle is metût. In this verse, you find a son stâts metûts. A son stâts is the third-person plural, passât prossim of the verb jessi, where stât is the past participle of this verb.

a son stâts
they were

Because the passât prossim has been formed here with the auxiliary jessi, the past participle stât must agree in gender and number with its subject. (Some verbs take as their auxiliary in the passât prossim; others take the verb jessi.)

al à metût
a àn metût
he put
they put

al è stât
a son stâts
he was
they were

e à metût
e je stade
she put
she was

This verse uses a son stâts metûts, which translates as they were put. In this passive construction, metût must also agree in gender and number with the subject.

al à metût
al è stât metût
he put
he was put

e à metût
e je stade metude
she put
she was put

a àn metût
a son stâts metûts
they put
they were put

a àn metût
a son stadis metudis
they put
they were put

Review the present indicative of the verb jessi. You must know this conjugation in order to create the passive constructions seen above. For example, he is in Friulian is al è; you must know this in order to say al è stât metût (he was put). Similarly, she is in Friulian is e je; you must know this in order to say e je stade metude (she was put).

The phrase a puest means in place, in order. The expression meti a puest, then, means to put in place, to put in order.

Diu al metè a puest il cîl
Diu al à metût a puest il cîl

God put in place the heaven

This verse uses the expression meti a puest in passive form: a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere (the heaven and the earth were put in place). A son stâts metûts agrees in gender and number with il cîl e la tiere. Because you have here one masculine noun (il cîl) and one feminine noun (la tiere), the agreement is made with the masculine plural. If you had two masculine nouns, the agreement would also be made with the masculine plural. If you had two feminine nouns, the agreement would be made with the feminine plural. For example:

l’aghe e la tiere a son stadis metudis
the water and the earth were put

One of the principal meanings of la schirie is military formation or military line-up. Here, in the current verse, it is to be understood as multitude. In this sense, dutis lis lôr schiriis can be understood as all their multitudes, or all the multitude of them, where the idea conveyed is all the things of the heaven and earth. Farther ahead in your study, in Gjenesi 14, you will find la schirie used in the sense of military formation, military line-up.

Review Friulian possessive adjectives.

Recall that cun means with. Review how Friulian prepositions contract when they come into contact with a definite article.

Verset 2

La vore means work. The verb finî means to finish; the verb polsâ means to rest. In this verse, you encounter polsâ di, meaning to rest from.

Diu al finì la sô vore
God finished his work

Diu al polsà di dute la vore
God rested from all the work

You will recall the meaning of che al veve fat (that he had done) from Gjenesi 1:31. In the current verse, you encounter che al veve fate, where the past participle fat has become fate to agree with la vore.

il cîl che al veve fat
the heaven that he had made

la vore che al veve fate
the work that he had done

You now learn the Friulian word for seventh: setim (masculine), setime (feminine).

la prime zornade
la seconde zornade
la tierce zornade
la cuarte zornade
la cuinte zornade
la seste zornade
la setime zornade

il prin libri
il secont libri
il tierç libri
il cuart libri
il cuint libri
il sest libri
il setim libri

You encounter in the text te setime zornade; you will recall that te is a contraction of in + la. You have seen te before in te volte (in the firmament). Te setime zornade translates literally as in the seventh day.

Verset 3

Recall that Diu al benedì means God blessed; the verb here is benedî (to bless).

The adjective sant means holy. Its four forms are sant (masculine singular), sants (masculine plural), sante (feminine singular) and santis (feminine plural).

Diu le fasè sante
God made it holy

In the example above taken from this verse, le stands in for the feminine la zornade; le is the feminine equivalent of lu, which you have already encountered:

Diu lu creà sul stamp di Diu
God created him in the stamp of God
God created him after the manner of God
(that is, God created him in the image of God)

You have also seen the plural ju:

Diu ju creà mascjo e femine
God created them male and female

In the presence of lu, le, ju, the atonic pronouns al, e, a are not expressed.

Diu al creà
Diu lu creà
God created
God created it

Diu al fasè
Diu le fasè
God made
God made it

Diu al creà
Diu ju creà
God created
God created them

Parcè che means because.

parcè che al veve polsât
because he had rested

Observe the following:

al fasè
al à fat
al veve fat

al polsà
al à polsât
al veve polsât

You encountered the noun la vore (work) in the previous verse; la creazion means creation. In la vore de creazion, de is a contraction of di + la.


Continue your study of chapter 2 of the book of Genesis. There are three parts in total.