Friulian language series: Gjenesi 1:26-31, tal imprin

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 26-31 of the first chapter. These are the final six verses of the chapter. All four posts pertaining to chapter 1 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 1:26-31

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 1:26-31. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 26

This verse begins with podopo, meaning then.

The English to make in our image finds its equivalent in Friulian as fâ sul nestri stamp, where stamp is a masculine noun meaning stamp, form, manner (it is question here of the divine stamp). Fasìn is the second-person plural, imperative form of the verb fâ; it means let us make. As for nestri, it means our:

il nestri libri
our book
i nestris libris
our books

la nestre cjase
our house
lis nestris cjasis
our houses

Pari nestri
Our Father

Crist Nestri Signôr
Christ Our Lord

Il nestri stamp means our stamp, our form; sul nestri stamp, then, means in our stamp (that is, in our image, after our manner). Su, of course, literally means on. Su combines with il to form sul: sul nestri stamp.

Consult an overview of Friulian possessive adjectives.

The verb someâ means to resemble.

l’om al somee
man resembles

l’om nus somee
man resembles us

In the presence of nus, the atonic al is not expressed.

In this verse, you encounter not the third-person singular, presint indicatîf form somee, but the third-person singular, coniuntîf presint form somei. You also encounter the third-person singular, coniuntîf presint in fasi.

al fâs
che al fasi
he makes; does
let him make; do

You find in this verse the expression fâ di paron su, meaning to rule over (or, literally, to act as ruler over). You will recall that il paron is the Friulian for ruler, master.

l’om al fâs di paron sui pes
man rules over the fish(es)

che al fasi di paron sui pes
let him rule over the fish(es)

The Friulian word for fish is il pes; its plural form is i pes.

i pes dal mâr
the fish(es) of the sea

i pes dal flum
the fish(es) of the river

i pes dal lât
the fish(es) of the lake

You encountered the remaining usages of the verse in the post pertaining to Gjenesi 1:20-25. In that post, you found strissinâsi su la tiere (to slither on the earth); in the current verse, you now find this same concept expressed as strissinâsi par tiere.

You will recall the meaning of the adjective salvadi, which is wild.

un nemâl salvadi
i nemâi salvadis

une bestie salvadie
lis bestiis salvadiis

Review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article; in this verse, you find a number of them: sul, sui, dal.

Verset 27

Recall that il so means his, her, its and is used before a masculine singular noun.

il so libri
his, her, its book

In this verse, you read that God created man sul so stamp (in his stamp, after his manner; that is, in his image).

You have encountered ju before; you now also encounter lu:

Diu lu creà
Diu ju creà
God created him
God created them

The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu or ju:

Diu al creà
Diu lu creà
God created
God created him

You find male and female expressed in this verse as il mascjo (male) and la femine (female).

Verset 28

You have already encountered the second-person plural, imperative forms lait and jemplait, from the verbs and jemplâ. In this verse, you now encounter a number of new second-person plural imperatives: multiplicaitsi, paronait and fasêt, from the verbs multiplicâsi, paronâ and fâ. The verb multiplicâsi means to multiply oneself (that is, to reproduce), and you will recall that paronâ means to rule.

By now, you will have perhaps noticed that verbs taking their infinitive in â use the ending ait in the second-person plural imperative: jemplait, paronait, etc.

From the verb fâ, you have now encountered the imperative forms fasìn (first-person plural) and fasêt (second-person plural).

You will notice the imperative paronait has le attached to it; le stands in here for la tiere: paronaitle (rule it).

Review now the forms taken by the Friulian for all:

dut il mês
all month
ducj i nemâi
all the animals

dute la vore
all the work
dutis lis bestiis
all the beasts

Verset 29

You first encountered the verb zontâ (to add) in the post pertaining to Gjenesi 1:1-10; it did not appear in a verse there, but it did appear in the notes.

In this verse, you have yet another second-person plural imperative: viodêt. You will have guessed that this comes from the verb viodi (to see). This is the second time that you are encountering a second-person plural imperative ending in êt: viodêt, fasêt. The others have ended in ait: jemplait, paronait, etc.

Viodêt che us doi translates literally as see that I give to you; you will understand this as meaning (you will now) see that I give to you, or behold, I give to you.

The verb means to give.

jo o doi
o doi
I give

In this verse, you find us doi, where us means to you (plural).

us doi
I give to you

The atonic o is not expressed in the presence of us.

o doi
us doi
I give
I give to you

You will recall that a son is the third-person plural, presint indicatîf form of the verb jessi.

dutis lis jerbis che a son su la tiere
all the grasses that are on the earth

The futûr sempliç (simple future) equivalent of a son is a saran.

a son su la tiere
a saran su la tiere
they are on the earth
they will be on the earth

The word for food in this verse is expressed as la mangjative.

You will recall that nestri means our; in this verse, you now encounter vuestri, meaning your (plural).

il vuestri libri
your book
i vuestris libris
your books

la vuestre cjase
your house
lis vuestris cjasis
your houses

Verset 30

In this verse, you encounter si strissine, which the third-person singular, presint indicatîf form of strissinâsi.

La vite means life. You can understand intorsi as meaning about it: al à intorsi la vite (it has life about it; that is, it is living); this is similar to intor, which you have already seen in the phrase cu la semence intor.

In the phrase par mangjative, you will understand par as meaning as. You will recall that vert means green.

Take note of the wording dut ce che:

dut ce che si strissine
everything that slithers

dut ce che al à intorsi la vite
everything that has life about it

dut ce che al è vert
everything that is green

Verset 31

The verb cjalâ means to look at, to observe.

You encounter in this verse an example of the third-person singular, trapassât prossim in al veve fat (he had done).

al à fat
al veve fat
he did
he had done

ce che al à fat
ce che al veve fat
what he did
what he had done

In this verse, rather than the usual al leve ben, you encounter al leve propit ben, where propit expresses the idea of very.

al leve propit ben
it was very good

You now learn the Friulian word for sixth: sest (masculine), seste (feminine).

la prime zornade
la seconde zornade
la tierce zornade
la cuarte zornade
la cuinte zornade
la seste zornade

il prin libri
il secont libri
il tierç libri
il cuart libri
il cuint libri
il sest libri