Friulian language series: Gjenesi 1:26-31, tal imprin

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 26-31 of the first chapter. These are the final six verses of the chapter. All four posts pertaining to chapter 1 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 1:26-31

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 1:26-31. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 26

Vocabulary: podopo (then), Diu (God), (to say), (to make, to do), fasìn (let us make, let us do), un om (man), il stamp (form, manner, stamp), sul nestri stamp (in our image, in our likeness), semeâ (to resemble; also someâ), il paron (ruler, master), fâ di paron (to act as ruler, to serve as master), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), il besteam (cattle, oxen), il nemâl (animal), salvadi (wild), dut (all), la bestie (beast), strissinâsi (to slither), par tiere (along the ground, along the earth).

Podopo Diu al disè: then God said. The English to make in our image, to make in our likeness finds its equivalent in Friulian as fâ sul nestri stamp, where stamp is a masculine noun meaning form, manner, stamp; it is question here of the divine stamp. Fasìn is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ; it means let us make. As for il nestri, it means our. Fasìn l’om sul nestri stamp: let us make man in our image; let us make man after our likeness. Observe the following examples of nestri: il nestri libri (our book); i nestris libris (our books); la nestre cjase (our house); lis nestris cjasis (our houses); Pari nestri (Our Father); Crist Nestri Signôr (Christ Our Lord). Il nestri stamp means our stamp; in sul nestri stamp, su (on) combines with il to form sul: sul nestri stamp (after [on] our stamp; that is, in our image, after our likeness). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Che nus semei: let him resemble us; may he resemble us. The verb semeâ (someâ) means to resemble; more examples: l’om al somee (man resembles); l’om nus somee (man resembles us), che l’om nus somei (let man resemble us). In the presence of nus, the atonic al is not expressed. Al somee is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf, whereas al somei is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint. You encounter the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint yet again in al fasi: che al fasi di paron (let him rule; may he rule [may he serve as ruler]) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven), sul besteam (over the cattle), sui nemâi salvadis (over the wild animals) e su dutis lis bestiis (and over all the creatures [beasts]) che si strissinin par tiere (that slither along the earth). Observe: al fâs (he makes; he does); che al fasi (let him make, let him do; may he make, may he do).

The Friulian for fish is il pes; its plural form is i pes. Examples: i pes dal mâr (the fish[es] of the sea); i pes dal flum (the fish[es] of the river); i pes dal lât (the fish[es] of the lake). Observe the following examples of salvadi (wild), taking note of how it is modified according to gender and number: un nemâl salvadi (wild animal), i nemâi salvadis (wild animals), une bestie salvadie (wild beast), lis bestiis salvadiis (wild beasts).

Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. In this verse, you find a number of them: sul, sui, dal.

Verset 27

Vocabulary: Diu (God), creâ (to create), un om (man), sul so stamp (in his image, after his likeness), lu (him), sul stamp di Diu (in the image of God, after the likeness of God), ju (them), il mascjo (male), la femine (female, woman).

Il so means his, her, its; it is used before a masculine singular noun. Example: il so libri (his, her, its book). You read that God created man sul so stamp (in his image, after his likeness).

You have encountered ju (them) before; you now encounter lu (him): Diu lu creà (God created him); Diu ju creà (God created them). The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu or ju: Diu al creà (God created); Diu lu creà (God created him). Diu […] ju creà mascjo e femine: God created them male and female.

Verset 28

Vocabulary: alore (then), Diu (God), ju (them), benedî (to bless), (to say), disint (saying), lâ in amôr (to mate, to reproduce), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself, to increase; also moltiplicâsi), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule, to dominate), il paron (ruler, master), fâ di parons (to act as rulers, to serve as masters), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), ducj (all; masculine plural), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to slither), su la tiere (on the earth, on the ground).

Alore Diu ju benedì disint: then God blessed them, saying. You have already encountered the second-person plural, imperative forms lait and jemplait, from the verbs and jemplâ. In this verse, you now encounter a number of new second-person plural imperatives: multiplicaitsi, paronait and fasêt, from the verbs multiplicâsi, paronâ and fâ. The verb multiplicâsi means to multiply oneself, to increase and paronâ means to rule. God says: lait in amôr, multiplicaitsi (mate and multiply), jemplait la tiere (fill the earth), paronaitle (dominate it) e fasêt di parons (and rule [serve as rulers]) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven) e su ducj i nemâi che si strissinin su la tiere (and over all the creatures [animals] that slither on the earth).

Verbs taking their infinitive in â use the ending ait in the second-person plural imperative: jemplait, paronait, multiplicait. From the verb fâ, you have now encountered the imperative forms fasìn (first-person plural) and fasêt (second-person plural). In the text of this verse, the imperative paronait has le attached to it; le stands in for la tiere: paronaitle (dominate it). Review the forms taken by dut (all) with these examples: dut il mês (all month); ducj i nemâi (all the animals); dute la vore (all the work); dutis lis bestiis (all the beasts).

Verset 29

Vocabulary: Diu (God), zontâ (to add), viodi (to see), us (unto you), (to give), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), la tiere (earth), il pomâr (fruit tree), la pome (fruit), fâ pomis (to bear fruit[s]), intor (about oneself), a saran (they shall be), il vuestri (your), la mangjative (food).

Diu al zontà: God added. Viodêt is the second-person plural imperative of the verb viodi; this is now the second time that you encounter a second-person plural imperative ending in êt: the other was fasêt. Viodêt che us doi dutis lis jerbis cu la semence che a son su la tiere: see, I give you all seed-bearing grasses on the earth; literally, see that unto you I give all the grasses with the seed that are on the earth. The verb means to give: jo o doi; o doi (I give). In the text of this verse, you find us doi, where us means unto you (plural): us doi (I give to you). The atonic o is not expressed in the presence of us: o doi (I give); us doi (I give to you).

A son means they are; this is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf. In the futûr sempliç (simple future), a son becomes a saran (they will be). Observe: a son su la tiere (they are on the earth); a saran su la tiere (they will be on the earth).

Ducj i pomârs che a fasin pomis cu la semence intor: all fruit trees that bear fruit(s) with their seed about them. A saran vuestre mangjative: they shall be your food. Recall that il nestri means our; in the text of this verse, you now encounter il vuestri, meaning your (plural). Observe: il vuestri libri (your book); i vuestris libris (your books); la vuestre cjase (your house); lis vuestris cjasis (your houses).

Verset 30

Vocabulary: a (to, unto), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), dut ce che (all that, everything that), strissinâsi (to slither), su la tiere (on the earth, on the ground), vê intorsi (to have about oneself), la vite (life), (to give), la mangjative (food), par mangjative (for food, as food), vert (green), cussì (thus, so), sucedi (to occur, to happen).

Si strissine is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of strissinâsi. God says: a lis bestiis salvadiis (to the wild beasts), ai ucei dal cîl (to the birds of the heaven) e a dut ce che si strissine su la tiere (and to all that slithers on the earth) e che al à intorsi la vite (and that has life about it), jo o doi par mangjative (I give for food) dut ce che al è vert (all that is green).

Study the wording dut ce che: dut ce che si strissine (all that slithers, everything that slithers); dut ce che al à intorsi la vite (all that has life about it, everything that has life about it); dut ce che al è vert (all that is green, everything that is green).

Verset 31

Vocabulary: Diu (God), cjalâ (to look [at, upon]), ce che (that which), (to make, to do), lâ propit ben (to be good indeed, to be right indeed), passà (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), sest (sixth), la zornade (day), la seste zornade (sixth day).

Al veve fat (he had made, he had done) is the third-person singular of the trapassât prossim. Observe the following pairs: al à fat; al veve fat (he made; he had made); ce che al à fat; ce che al veve fat (that which he made; that which he had made). You read: Diu al cjalà ce che al veve fat (God looked upon that which he had made) e al leve propit ben (and it was good indeed).

You now learn the Friulian for sixth: sest (masculine), seste (feminine). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening went by and a morning): seste zornade (sixth day).