Present indicative of the Friulian verb VÊ

is the Friulian verb for to have.

In the affirmative presint indicatîf (present indicative), the tonic pronouns listed below are optional, but the atonic pronouns are mandatory and appear before the verb. For example, I have can be expressed as jo o ai or simply o ai; you have can be expressed as tu tu âs or simply tu âs; he has can be expressed as lui al à or simply al à.

The tonic pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (you; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); (we; first-person plural); vualtris (you; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural).

The atonic pronouns are: o (used in first-person singular, first-person plural and second-person plural); tu (used in second-person singular); al (used in masculine, third-person singular); e (used in feminine, third-person singular); a (used in third-person plural). This will become clearer to you in the chart below.

When the tonic pronoun is expressed, it is usually for the purpose of contrast or emphasis; for example: jo o ai un cjan e tu tu âs un gjat (I have a dog, and you have a cat). Otherwise, where no contrast or emphasis is needed, I have a dog could simply be expressed as o ai un cjan, and you have a cat could be expressed as tu âs un gjat.

In the affirmative, even when the tonic pronoun is replaced with a noun, the atonic pronoun must still be expressed: Diu al à (God has), la tiere e à (the earth has), etc. To negate, the atonic pronouns are replaced with no, with the following exceptions: in the second-person singular, no is placed before the atonic tu and does not replace it, and in the masculine, third-person singular, the atonic al is replaced with nol.

Below the chart, you will find examples of the presint indicatîf of the verb as found in the Friulian Bible. The abbreviated Bible chapter names in the examples are listed in full at the end of this post, for your reference.

Consult the Friulian Bible in a new window on bibie.org

Consult the Friulian Bible in this same window on bibie.org

Present indicative of

affirmative
negative
interrogative
jo
(I)
o ai
(I have)
no ai
(I have not)
aio?
(have I?)
no aio?
(have I not?)
tu
(you)
tu âs
(you have)
no tu âs
(you have not)
âstu?
(have you?)
no âstu?
(have you not?)
lui
(he)
al à
(he has)
nol à
(he has not)
aial?
(has he?)
no aial?
(has he not?)

(she)
e à
(she has)
no à
(she has not)
aie?
(has she?)
no aie?
(has she not?)

(we)
o vin
(we have)
no vin
(we have not)
vino?
(have we?)
no vino?
(have we not?)
vualtris
(you)
o vês
(you have)
no vês
(you have not)
vêso?
(have you?)
no vêso?
(have you not?)
lôr
(they)
a àn
(they have)
no àn
(they have not)
àno?
(have they?)
no àno?
(have they not?)

Examples in the affirmative: jo o ai teme di Diu (Gjen 42:18); se tu âs sêt, va a bevi tai vâs di crep (Rt 2:9), al à une fie di non Sare (Tb 6:11); la rabie e à la sô cove tal cûr dai stupits (Qo 7:9), o vin une citât fuarte (Is 26:1); o vês sîs dîs che si pò lavorâ (Lc 13:14); a àn i vôi fodrâts di bramis orendis (2 Pt 2:14).

Examples in the negative: e no ai cun me chest frut (Gjen 44:30); no tu âs dirit a la glorie ch’e ven dal Signôr Diu (2 Cr 26:18); nancje dai siei sants lui nol à fiducie (Jp 15:15); la circuncision no à nissune impuartance, e nancje la incircuncision no à nissune impuartance (1 Cor 7:19); no vin plui re! (Os 10:3); no vês di bevi vin ni vualtris ni i vuestris fîs, par mai (Gjer 35:6); no àn pôre di svilanâ lis gloriis (2 Pt 2:10).

Examples in the interrogative: trops agns âstu? (Gjen 47:8); ce âstu di fâ di cheste robe? (2 Sam 16:2); aial di jessilu ancje par me? (Za 8:6); ce vino di fâ? (Lc 3:10); trops pans vêso? (Nc 8:5); parcè mo vêso pôre, oms di pocje fede? (Mt 8:26); ce virtût àno mo il cûr, il fiât e la fêl dal pes? (Tb 6:7).

Examples in the negated interrogative: no âstu nissun altri fi? (1 Sam 16:11); no aial forsit peraulis di bonvolê pal so popul Israel? (Mi 2:7); no vino dirit di mangjâ e di bevi? (1 Cor 9:4); po no vêso lis vuestris cjasis par mangjâ e par bevi? (1 Cor 11:22); i nestris vons no àno fat compagn?* (Ne 13:18).

*No àno fat? is in fact the third-person plural passât prossim of the verb fâ; it uses the auxiliary in its composition; a àn fat (they did, they made), àno fat? (did they do?, did they make?); no àn fat (they did not do, they did not make), no àno fat (did they not do?, did they not make?).


Abbreviations: 1 Cor, 1 Corints; 2 Cr, 2 Cronachis; Gjen, Gjenesi; Gjer, Gjeremie; Is, Isaie; Jp, Jop; Lc, Luche; Mi, Michee; Mt, Matieu; Nc, Marc; Ne, Neemie; Os, Osee; 2 Pt, 2 Pieri; Qo, Qoelet; Rt, Rut; 1 Sam, 1 Samuel; 2 Sam, 2 Samuel; Tb, Tubie; Za, Zacarie.