Present indicative of the Friulian verb JESSI

Jessi is the Friulian verb for to be.

In the affirmative presint indicatîf (present indicative), the tonic pronouns listed below are optional, but the atonic pronouns are mandatory and appear before the verb. For example, I am can be expressed as jo o soi or simply o soi; you are can be expressed as tu tu sês or simply tu sês; he is can be expressed as lui al è or simply al è.

The tonic pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (you; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); (we; first-person plural); vualtris (you; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural).

The atonic pronouns are: o (used in first-person singular, first-person plural and second-person plural); tu (used in second-person singular); al (used in masculine, third-person singular); e (used in feminine, third-person singular); a (used in third-person plural). This will become clearer to you in the chart below.

When the tonic pronoun is expressed, it is usually for the purpose of contrast or emphasis; for example: cumò però lui al è consolât e tu tu sês tormentât (but now he is consoled and you are tormented), from the Friulian Bible, Lc 16:25. Otherwise, where no contrast or emphasis is needed, he is consoled could simply be expressed as al è consôlat, and you are tormented could be expressed as tu sês tormentât.

In the affirmative, even when the tonic pronoun is replaced with a noun, the atonic pronoun must still be expressed: Diu al è (God is), la tiere e je (the earth is), etc. To negate, the atonic pronouns are replaced with no, with the following exceptions: in the second-person singular, no is placed before the atonic tu and does not replace it, and in the masculine, third-person singular, the atonic al is replaced with nol.

Below the chart, you will find examples of Friulian phrases using the presint indicatîf of the verb jessi taken from the Friulian Bible. The abbreviated Bible chapter names in the examples are listed in full at the end of this post, for your reference.

Verb: JESSI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
negative
interrogative
jo
(I)
o soi
(I am)
no soi
(I am not)
soio?
(am I?)
no soio?
(am I not?)
tu
(you)
tu sês
(you are)
no tu sês
(you are not)
sêstu?
(are you?)
no sêstu?
(are you not?)
lui
(he)
al è
(he is)
nol è
(he is not)
isal?*
(is he?)
no isal?
*
(is he not?)

(she)
e je
(she is)
no je
(she is not)
ise?*
(is she?)
no ise?
*
(is she not?)

(we)
o sin
(we are)
no sin
(we are not)
sino?
(are we?)
no sino?
(are we not?)
vualtris
(you)
o sês
(you are)
no sês
(you are not)
sêso?
(are you?)
no sêso?
(are you not?)
lôr
(they)
a son
(they are)
no son
(they are not)
sono?
(are they?)
no sono?
(are they not?)

*You will also find in the Friulian Bible the masculine, third-person singular, interrogative form esal; and the feminine, third-person singular, interrogative form ese. Their negated forms are no esal and no ese.

Examples in the affirmative: jo o soi il Signôr (Es 6:29); jo o soi la strade, la veretât e la vite (Zn 14:6); cumò però lui al è consolât e tu tu sês tormentât (Lc 16:25); se tu sês onest e just (Jp 8:6); e je la tô bocje che ti condane, no jo (Jp 15:6); nô o sin pronts a murî (2 Mac 7:2); o sin testemonis nô! (Gs 24:22); vualtris o sês testemonis (Is 44:8); jo no sai di dulà ch’o sês (Lc 13:27); il cîl e la tiere a son testemonis (1 Mac 2:37).

Examples in the negative: jo no soi bon di fevelâ (Es 6:30); no tu sês tu che tu tegnis sù la lidrîs ma e je la lidrîs che ti ten sù te (Rm 11:18); nol è nuie di gnûf sot dal soreli (Qo 1:9); di fat la fede no je di ducj (2 Ts 3:2); parcè che nô no sin come i tancj ch’a trafichin la peraule di Diu (2 Cor 2:17); parcè che vualtris no sês il gno popul (Os 1:8); parcè che lis tôs ideis no son chês di Diu ma chês dai oms (Mt 16:23).

Examples in the interrogative: soio forsit jo? (Nc 14:19); sêstu il re dai gjudeus? (Mt 27:11); cui isal compagn di me? (Is 44:7); dulà isal to Pari? (Zn 8:19); esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ? (Gjen 18:14); dulà ise la vuestre fede? (Lc 8:25); dulà ese Sare, la tô femine? (Gjen 18:9); sino forsit plui fuarts di lui? (1 Cor 10:22); sêso forsit plui grancj di chescj reams? (Am 6:2); cui sono chei li? (Gjen 48:8); cui ise mê mari e cui sono i miei fradis? (Nc 3:33).

Examples in the negated interrogative: no soio libar jo? (1 Cor 9:1); no soio jo, il Signôr? (Es 4:11); no sêstu tu il Signôr fin dai timps di une volte? (Ab 1:12); no isal forsit Gjerusalem? (Mi 1:5); no esal par chel che o sês vignûts chi dal vuestri famei? (Gjen 18:5); po no ise une robe false chê ch’o ài in man? (Is 44:20); no ese une robe di nuie? (Gjen 19:20); nô no sino stâts bogns di parâlu fûr?** (Mt 17:19); no sêso vualtris la mê vore tal Signôr? (1 Cor 9:1); i miei princips no sono ducj rês? (Is 10:8).

**Nô no sino stâts? is in fact the second-person plural passât prossim of the verb jessi; it has used the auxiliary jessi in its composition: o sin stâts (we were); sino stâts? (were we?); no sin stâts (we were not), no sino stâts? (were we not?).


Abbreviations: Ab, Abacuc; Am, Amos; 1 Cor, 1 Corints; 2 Cor, 2 Corints; Es, Esodo; Gjen, Gjenesi; Gs, Gjosuè; Is, Isaie; Jp, Jop; Lc, Luche; 1 Mac, 1 Macabeus; 2 Mac, 2 Macabeus; Mi, Michee; Mt, Matieu; Nc, Marc; Os, Osee; Qo, Qoelet; Rm, Romans; 2 Ts, 2 Tessalonicês; Zn, Zuan.