Friulian language series: present indicative of the verb vê

is the Friulian verb for to have.

In the affirmative presint indicatîf (present indicative), the tonic pronouns listed below are optional, but the atonic pronouns are mandatory and appear before the verb. For instance, I have may be expressed as jo o ai or simply o ai; thou hast may be expressed as tu tu âs or tu âs; he hath may be expressed as lui al à or al à.

The tonic pronouns are: jo (I; first-person singular); tu (thou; second-person singular); lui (he; masculine, third-person singular); (she; feminine, third-person singular); (we; first-person plural); vualtris (ye; second-person plural); lôr (they; third-person plural).

The atonic pronouns are: o (used in first-person singular, first-person plural and second-person plural); tu (used in second-person singular); al (used in masculine, third-person singular); e (used in feminine, third-person singular); a (used in third-person plural). This will become clearer to the reader in the table below.

When the tonic pronoun is expressed, it is normally for the purpose of contrast or emphasis; for instance: jo o ài un fi, tu tu âs une fie ({whereas} I have a son, thou {for thy part} hast a daughter). Otherwise, where no contrast or emphasis is needed, I have a son may simply be expressed as o ài un fi, and thou hast a daughter may be expressed as tu âs une fie.

In the affirmative, even when the tonic pronoun is replaced with a noun, the atonic pronoun must still be expressed: Diu al à (God hath); la tiere e à (the earth hath), etc. To negate, the atonic pronouns are replaced with no, with the following exceptions: in the second-person singular, no is placed before the atonic tu and does not replace it, and in the masculine, third-person singular, the atonic al is replaced with nol.

Below the table, the reader will find examples of Friulian phrases using the presint indicatîf of the verb drawn from Bibie par un popul. The abbreviated Bible chapter names in the examples are listed in full at the end of this post, for reference.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o ai
(I have)
no ai
(I have not)
(have I?)
no aio?
(have I not?)
tu âs
(thou hast)
no tu âs
(thou hast not)
(hast thou?)
no âstu?
(hast thou not?)
al à
(he hath)
nol à
(he hath not)
(hath he?)
no aial?
(hath he not?)

e à
(she hath)
no à
(she hath not)
(hath she?)
no aie?
(hath she not?)

o vin
(we have)
no vin
(we have not)
(have we?)
no vino?
(have we not?)
o vês
(ye have)
no vês
(ye have not)
(have ye?)
no vêso?
(have ye not?)
a àn
(they have)
no àn
(they have not)
(have they?)
no àno?
(have they not?)

*Instead of aie, the reader will find the variant àe in the Friulian Bible. Its negated form is no àe.

Examples in the affirmative: jo o ai teme di Diu (Gjen 42:18); se tu âs sêt, va a bevi tai vâs di crep (Rt 2:9), al à une fie di non Sare (Tb 6:11); la rabie e à la sô cove tal cûr dai stupits (Qo 7:9), o vin une citât fuarte (Is 26:1); o vês sîs dîs che si pò lavorâ (Lc 13:14); a àn i vôi fodrâts di bramis orendis (2 Pt 2:14).

Examples in the negative: e no ai cun me chest frut (Gjen 44:30); no tu âs dirit a la glorie ch’e ven dal Signôr Diu (2 Cr 26:18); nancje dai siei sants lui nol à fiducie (Jp 15:15); la circuncision no à nissune impuartance, e nancje la incircuncision no à nissune impuartance (1 Cor 7:19); no vin plui re (Os 10:3); no vês di bevi vin ni vualtris ni i vuestris fîs, par mai (Gjer 35:6); no àn pôre di svilanâ lis gloriis (2 Pt 2:10).

Examples in the interrogative: trops agns âstu? (Gjen 47:8); ce âstu di fâ di cheste robe? (2 Sam 16:2); aial di jessilu ancje par me? (Za 8:6); parcè po Sare àe ridût? (Gjen 18:13); ce vino di fâ? (Lc 3:10); trops pans vêso? (Nc 8:5); parcè mo vêso pôre, oms di pocje fede? (Mt 8:26); ce virtût àno mo il cûr, il fiât e la fêl dal pes? (Tb 6:7).

Examples in the negated interrogative: no âstu nissun altri fi? (1 Sam 16:11); no aial forsit peraulis di bonvolê pal so popul Israel? (Mi 2:7); e sô mari no àe non Marie? (Mt 13:55); no vino dirit di mangjâ e di bevi? (1 Cor 9:4); po no vêso lis vuestris cjasis par mangjâ e par bevi? (1 Cor 11:22); i nestris vons no àno fat compagn?** (Ne 13:18).

**No àno fat? is in fact the third-person plural passât prossim of the verb fâ; it uses the auxiliary in its composition; a àn fat (they have done/made; they did/made), àno fat? (have they done/made?; did they do/make?); no àn fat (they have not done/made; they did not do/make); no àno fat? (have they not done/made?; did they not do/make?).

Abbreviations: 1 Cor — 1 Corints; 2 Cr — 2 Cronachis; Gjen — Gjenesi; Gjer — Gjeremie; Is — Isaie; Jp — Jop; Lc — Luche; Mi — Michee; Mt — Matieu; Nc — Marc; Ne — Neemie; Os — Osee; 2 Pt — 2 Pieri; Qo — Qoelet; Rt — Rut; 1 Sam — 1 Samuel; 2 Sam — 2 Samuel; Tb — Tubie; Za — Zacarie.