Friulian contractions: preposition + definite article

Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article can sometimes take more than one form. In the overview below, not all variations are given; the contractions below have been chosen based on their appearance in the Friulian Bible. For example, the preposition a + definite article la can become either a la or ae, but ae is not included below because it is not used in the Bible.

That said, even within the Bible itself you will find variations, and not all of them are included here. An overview of all variations will need to be dealt with in a separate post. Use the information below as a starting point, and you will thus be able to make sense of variations as you encounter them on your own.

For each of the four gender-number possibilities (masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular, feminine plural), you will find examples below of the contractions used with two different nouns: the first of the pair begins with a consonant, and the second begins with a vowel.

The only exception to the above is in 4b, where only nouns beginning with a consonant are provided in the examples; I have not found examples in the Bible of the contractions in 4b used with nouns beginning with a vowel.

At the end of this post, you will find the full names of the Bible chapters that have been referenced in the examples in abbreviated form.

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masculine feminine
singular il; l’ la; l’
plural i lis

Examples: masculine singular il cîl (Gjen 2:4), l’arbul (Gjen 2:9); masculine plural i cîi (Is 40:12), i arbui (Gjen 2:16); feminine singular la tiere (Gjen 2:4), l’aghe (Nm 19:13); feminine plural lis tieris (Dt 1:7), lis aghis (Is 40:12).


1. a + definite article
(to the)

masculine feminine
singular al a la; a l’
plural ai a lis

Examples: masculine singular al scûr (Gjen 1:5), al om (Gjen 2:21); masculine plural ai fîs (Nm 18:21), ai ucei (Gjen 2:20); feminine singular a la lûs (Gjen 1:5), a l’opare (1 Cr 28:10); feminine plural a lis bestiis (Sir 12:13), a lis isulis (1 Mac 15:1).

2. cun + definite article
(with the)

masculine feminine
singular cul cu la; cu l’
plural cui cu lis

Examples: masculine singular cul spirt (Ez 37:1), cul ucel (Lv 14:6); masculine plural cui cjans (Gjer 15:3), cui agns (Gs 13:1); feminine singular cu la cueste (Gjen 2:22), cu l’aghe (1 Zn 5:6); feminine plural cu lis mans (Pr 6:10), cu lis alis (Gjen 1:21).

3. di + definite article
(from the, of the)

masculine feminine
singular dal de; da l’
plural dai des

Examples: masculine singular dal cîl (Gjen 2:4), dal om (Gjen 2:7); masculine plural dai flums (Is 18:7), dai altârs (Is 17:8); feminine singular de tiere (Gjen 2:4), da l’arcje (1 Cr 15:23); feminine plural des vitoriis (Sal 68:21), des isulis (1 Mac 6:29).

4a. in + definite article
(in the)

First variation

masculine feminine
singular tal te; ta l’
plural tai tes

Examples: masculine singular tal mieç (Gjen 2:9), tal amôr (Gd 1:1); masculine plural tai timps (Ml 3:4), tai agns (Ml 3:4); feminine singular te volte (Gjen 1:14), ta l’aghe (Nm 19:7); feminine plural tes busis (Gjen 2:7), tes orelis (2 Sam 22:7).

4b. in + definite article
(in the)

Second variation

I have not found examples in the Bible of any of these contractions used with a noun beginning with a vowel.

masculine feminine
singular intal inte; inta l’
plural intai intes

Examples: masculine singular intal paîs (Gjer 14:4); masculine plural intai cjamps (Sal 78:43); feminine singular inte tiere (Gjer 33:15); feminine plural intes busis (1 Mac 2:41).

5. par + definite article
(for the)

masculine feminine
singular pal pe; pa l’
plural pai pes

Examples: masculine singular pal vignadiç (Nm 19:10), pal om (Gjen 2:20); masculine plural pai fîs (Nm 19:10), pai oms (Sap 7:14); feminine singular pe tribù (Nm 13:4), pa l’aghe (Nm 19:9); feminine plural pes blestemis (2 Re 19:6), pes aghis (Gs 15:7).

6. su + definite article
(on the)

masculine feminine
singular sul su la; su l’
plural sui su lis

Examples: masculine singular sul cjâf (Lv 1:4), sul altâr (Lv 6:3); masculine plural sui confins (Ez 11:10), sui arbui (Jd 9:9); feminine singular su la tiere (Gjen 2:5), su l’arie (1 Cr 21:28); feminine plural su lis cjasis (Ab 1:6), su lis alis (2 Sam 22:11).

Abbreviations: Ab, Abacuc; 1 Cr, 1 Cronachis; Dt, Deuteronomi; Ez, Ezechiel; Gd, Gjude; Gjen, Gjenesi; Gjer, Gjeremie; Gs, Gjosuè; Is, Isaie; Jd, Judiçs; Lv, Levitic; 1 Mac, 1 Macabeus; Ml, Malachie; Nm, Numars; Pr, Proverbis; 2 Re, 2 Rês; Sal, Salms; 2 Sam, 2 Samuel; Sap, Sapience; Sir, Fi di Sirac; 1 Zn, 1 Zuan.