Friulian language series: Gjenesi 1:11-19, tal imprin

This post continues your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis. You will now examine verses 11-19 of the first chapter. All four posts pertaining to chapter 1 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 1:11-19

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 1:11-19. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 11

Before you continue, you may wish to study the contents of these posts:

Verse 11 begins with Diu al disè, which you will recall means God said. Friulian has another way of expressing this:

Diu al à dit
God said
God has said

Dit is the past participle of the verb (to say); in the formation of the passât prossim, the verb (to have) is often used as its auxiliary. You looked at some examples of this at the end of the post pertaining to Gjenesi 1:1-10.

cjapâ, to take
al à cjapât
he took
he has taken

fevelâ, to speak
al à fevelât
he spoke
he has spoken

Colloquial Friulian uses the passât prossim to express past time; you have not yet encountered it in the Bible, however. Using the tense that you have encountered thus far in the Bible, which is the passât sempliç, the above two examples would be expressed as al cjapà and al fevelà.

The Friulian verb taponâ means to cover; the reflexive taponâsi means to cover oneself. Che si taponi used in this verse is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb taponâsi; it means let cover itself.

la tiere che si taponi di vert
let the earth cover itself in green
(let the earth be covered in green)

Diu al taponà
Diu al à taponât
God covered

You will have perhaps noticed that, in the third-person singular, coniuntîf presint, the conjugated verb has always ended in i.

jessi, to be
ch’e sedi
let (it; her) be

vignî fur, to come forth
che al vegni fûr
let (it; him) come forth

dividi, to divide
ch’e dividi
let (it; her) divide

plantâsi, to place oneself
che si planti
let place itself
let place himself
let place herself

taponâsi, to cover oneself
che si taponi
let cover itself
let cover himself
let cover herself

You will also notice that neither e nor al appear in the last two examples above, where si is present.

In this verse, you learn the name of a colour: vert (green); it is used as a masculine noun.

taponâ di vert
to cover in green

taponâsi di vert
to cover oneself in green

vert clâr
light green

vert scûr
dark green

You encounter a number of other nouns in this verse: la jerbe (herb, grass), la semence (seed), il pomâr (fruit tree), la pome (fruit), lis pomis (fruits).

la tiere che si taponi di jerbe
let the earth cover itself in herb; grass

la tiere che si taponi di pomârs
let the earth cover itself in fruit trees

jerbe cu la semence
herb with the seed
(herb with its seed)

pomârs che a fasin lis pomis
fruit trees that make fruit

In the last example above, a fasin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb (to make).

al fâs; e fâs
he makes; she makes
a fasin
they make (masculine and feminine)

The Friulian word for they is lôr.

lôr a fasin
they make

Lôr can be omitted, but a is mandatory.

lôr a fasin
a fasin

i zovins a fasin
the youths make

lis feminis a fasin
the women make

You will recall that you have already seen the third-person singular, passât sempliç of this verb: fasè.

Diu al fasè il cîl
Diu al à fat il cîl
God made the heaven

You will also recall that this is not the first time you are encountering a third-person plural, presint indicatîf form. You have already encountered a son (they are).

lis aghis che a son sot de volte
the waters that are below the firmament

You have already seen how su (on) contracts with il to form sul.

il mâr
su + il mâr
= sul mâr

With la, su becomes su la. As for cun (with), it becomes cu la.

la tiere
su + la tiere
= su la tiere

la semence
cun + la semence
= cu la semence

Consult an overview of Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

The expression seont la lôr cualitât translates as according to their kind. Seont means according to. La cualitât means quality, kind; la lôr cualitât, then, means their kind, where lôr expresses possession.

la lôr cjase
their house
lis lôr cjasis
their houses

il lôr libri
their book
i lôr libris
their books

Consult an overview of Friulian possessive adjectives.

In the phrase cu la semence intor, you can understand intor as meaning about.

cu la semence intor
with the seed about (it)
(with its seed in it)

pomis cu la semence intor
fruits with the seed about (them)
(fruits with their seed in them)

This verse ends with e al sucedè propit cussì. You have already seen e al sucedè cussì; this time propit (just) has been added.

e al sucedè cussì
and it occurred so

e al sucedè propit cussì
and it occurred just so

You know that al sucedè is the passât sempliç form; the passât prossim form is al è sucedût.

al sucedè cussì
it occurred so

al è sucedût cussì
it occurred so
it has occurred so

This time, the passât prossim is formed not with the auxiliary (to have), but jessi (to be). Certain verbs use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim; sucedi is one of them. Two other verbs that use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim are (to go) and vignî (to come).

al è lât
he went
he has gone

al è vignût
he came
he has come

Verset 12

This verse begins with the verb taponâsi in the passât sempliç.

la tiere si taponà di vert
the earth covered itself in green

If you wanted to use the passât prossim instead, you could say:

la tiere si è taponade di vert
the earth covered itself in green
the earth has covered itself in green

In the passât prossim, when a reflexive verb (e.g., taponâsi, plantâsi) takes the auxiliary jessi, the past participle agrees in gender and number with its subject. Because the subject la tiere is a feminine singular noun, the past participle is expressed as taponade, not taponât. Here is another example, this time using fermâsi (to stop oneself, to come to a stop):

il timp si è fermât
time stopped itself
time came to a stop

l’aghe si è fermade
the water stopped itself
the water came to a stop

In the notes at verse 11, you saw the passât prossim forms al è lât and al è vignût. Can you now guess what the feminine equivalents are?

e je lade
she went
she has gone

e je vignude
she came
she has come

As a review, compare now these third-person singular, passât prossim pairs (masculine; feminine):

al à cjapât; e à cjapât
al à fevelât; e à fevelât

al è lât; e je lade
al è vignût; e je vignude

In the third-person plural, all of the above become:

a àn cjapât (masculine and feminine)
a àn fevelât (masculine and feminine)

a son lâts; a son ladis
a son vignûts; a son vignudis

Can you say the following in Friulian?

  1. they sang
  2. they spoke
  3. they studied

Here are the answers:

  1. (lôr) a àn cjantât
  2. (lôr) a àn fevelât
  3. (lôr) a àn studiât

This verse reminds you how the feminine plural of nouns is formed:

la pome
lis pomis

la jerbe
lis jerbis

You encounter again Diu al viodè in this verse, in the passât sempliç. Using the passât prossim, you would say Diu al à viodût.

Diu al viodè
God saw
Diu al à viodût

God saw
God has seen

e à viodût
she saw
she has seen

a àn viodût
they saw
they have seen

Verset 13

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian word for third: tierç (masculine), tierce (feminine).

la prime zornade
la seconde zornade
la tierce zornade

il prin libri
il secont libri
il tierç libri

Verset 14

The masculine noun il lusôr means light, luminary; that is, a celestial body that gives off light (il soreli, sun; la lune, moon).

From verse 9, you will recall this third-person singular, coniuntîf presint form:

che al vegni fûr il teren
let the ground come forth

In this verse, you now have its third-person plural equivalent:

che a vegnin fûr lusôrs
let lights come forth

You will recall that tal is a contraction of in + il; in this verse, you now see that in has contracted with la to form te.

il mieç
in + il mieç
= tal mieç

la volte
in + la volte
= te volte

te volte dal cîl
in the firmament of the heaven

The expression dividi il dì de gnot means to separate the day from the night, where the verb dividi literally means to divide. In this verse, this expression is preceded by par, which means (in order) to.

par dividi il dì de gnot
in order to separate the day from the night

The verb segnâ means to mark, to act as a sign. Lis fiestis is the plural of the feminine la fieste (feast); lis zornadis is the plural of the feminine la zornade (day); and lis anadis is the plural of the feminine l’anade (year).

In the same way that Friulian has and zornade for day, where zornade emphasises the duration of a day, it also has an and anade, where anade emphasises the duration of a year.

chest an
this year

l’an passât
last year

The plural of an is agns.

un om di trente agns
a man of thirty years
(a thirty-year-old man)

une anade di ploie
a year of rain
(a rainy year)

You come across the word par again, this time as part of par che; the meaning of par che is so that.

par che a segnin
so that they mark

You will have recognised the use of the third-person plural, coniuntîf presint in par che a segnin. You have seen other examples of the third-person plural, coniuntîf presint:

che s’ingrumin
che a vegnin fûr

Can you say the following in Friulian?

  1. let them come forth
  2. so that they come forth
  3. let it place itself
  4. let them place themselves
  5. so that it places itself
  6. let it mark
  7. so that they mark

Here are the answers:

  1. che a vegnin fûr
  2. par che a vegnin fûr
  3. che si planti
  4. che si plantin
  5. par che si planti
  6. che al segni; ch’e segni
  7. par che a segnin

Verset 15

You will have understood that the expression fâ lûs translates literally as to make light; you can understand it as meaning to shine.

You have another example in this verse of par in the sense of (in order) to.

Verset 16

The Friulian word for two is doi; this is its masculine form. Its feminine form is dôs. You already know, of course, that the word for one also has a masculine and feminine form: un, une.

doi libris
two books

dôs cjasis
two houses

When counting, you use the masculine forms: un, doi, três.

The adjective biel has a number of meanings, including nice, fine; you will understand it here as meaning grand, considerable.

biel / biei
(masculine singular / plural)

biele / bielis
(feminine singular / plural)

doi biei voi
two nice eyes
il voli, eye
i voi, eyes

The adjective grant means large; piçul means small. Plui means more; plui grant, then, translates as larger, and plui piçul translates as smaller.

chel plui grant
the larger one
that larger one

chel plui piçul
the smaller one
that smaller one

il Signôr al è grant
God (the Lord) is great

The masculine noun il paron means ruler, master.

il paron dal dì
the ruler of the day

il paron de gnot
the ruler of the night

Tant che means as, like.

tant che paron dal dì
as ruler of the day

The feminine noun la stele means star; its plural form is lis stelis.

Verset 17

Ju means them.

Diu ju plantà
God placed them

You will notice the absence of al in the example above, where ju is present.

In this verse, you have an example of the third-person plural, coniuntîf imperfet of the verb fâ.

par che a fasessin
so that they made

Compare:

par che a fevelin
so that they speak
par che a fevelassin
so that they spoke

par che a fasin lûs
so that they make light
par che a fasessin lûs
so that they made light

Verset 18

The verb paronâ is related to the noun paron that you have already encountered; it means to rule, to master.

paronâ une situazion
to master a situation
to have control of a situation

paronâ la lenghe furlane
to master the Friulian language

paronâ al dì
to rule over the day

You have more examples of the third-person plural, coniuntîf imperfet in this verse.

par che a paronassin
so that they ruled

par che a dividessin
so that they divided
so that they separated

Verset 19

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian word for fourth: cuart (masculine), cuarte (feminine).

la prime zornade
la seconde zornade
la tierce zornade
la cuarte zornade

il prin libri
il secont libri
il tierç libri
il cuart libri


Continue your study of chapter 1 of the book of Genesis. There are four parts in total.