Friulian language series: Gjenesi 1, tal imprin

Gjenesi

Tal imprin

This post begins your study of the Friulian language through the Bible, beginning with the book of Genesis: il libri de Gjenesi. The text that you will read was translated by Antoni Beline. Made available by Glesie Furlane in Bibie par un popul, it is the ideal text to work from in your study of Friulian. If you are concerned that you will acquire archaic-sounding language, know that this is untrue: the text has been rendered into standard, contemporary Friulian. You will learn an incredibly diverse range of usages, and you will learn them very well.

The Friulian for Bible is la Bibie or la Biblie. La Bibie par furlan means the Bible in Friulian. The name of the Friulian language in Friulian itself is il furlan. A chapter of the Bible is called un cjapitul, and a verse is called un verset. You will begin your study with the story of creation, or la creazion, as told in the first chapter of the book of Genesis.

Read Gjenesi 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 1. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

Tal imprin (in the beginning) Diu al creà (God created) cîl e tiere (heaven and earth).

Vocabulary: l’imprin (beginning), tal imprin (in the beginning), Diu (God), creâ (to create), Diu al creà (God created), il cîl (heaven, sky), e (and), la tiere (earth).

The Friulian name for God is Diu. Imprin is a masculine noun meaning beginning; l’imprin means the beginning. Tal imprin translates as in the beginning, where the Friulian in has contracted with l’ to form tal (in the). Overview: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

l’imprin
in + l’imprin
= tal imprin

The Friulian verb creâ means to create. The masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç (simple past) is lui al creà (he created). In this verse, you find Diu al creà, meaning God created. Diu replaces lui (he), and the inclusion of al is mandatory. The masculine noun cîl means heaven; it also means sky. The feminine noun tiere means earth. Il is the masculine definite article; the feminine definite article is la. Cîl is the Friulian for both heaven and sky: sometimes it refers to the heaven above the firmament (see the notes at verse 6), and other times it refers to the sky below the firmament where the birds fly. The use of cîl for both heaven and sky is not limited to the Bible; this is also the usage of Friulian in general. Consider now the following: lui al creà il cîl; lui al creà la tiere; lui al creà cîl e tiere (he created the heaven; he created the earth; he created heaven and earth); Diu al creà il cîl; Diu al creà la tiere; Diu al creà cîl e tiere (God created the heaven; God created the earth; God created heaven and earth).

Supplementary examples of the passât sempliç, using different verbs: lui al zontà (he added; zontâ, to add); lui al polsà (he rested; polsâ, to rest); lui al deventà (he became; deventâ, to become); Diu al cjapà l’om (God took the man; cjapâ, to take). In the last example, you find the Friulian for man: l’om. The Friulian for woman is la femine. Examine now the following examples: lui al creà (he created); jê e creà (she created); lui al zontà (he added); jê e zontà (she added); lui al polsà (he rested); jê e polsà (she rested). Lui means he; means she. In the same way that the inclusion of al is mandatory in the masculine, the inclusion of e is mandatory in the feminine.

Say the following in Friulian, using the passât sempliç:

  1. the man became
  2. the man took
  3. God created the earth
  4. God created man
  5. the woman added
  6. the woman took
  7. the woman rested

Answers:

  1. l’om al deventà
  2. l’om al cjapà
  3. Diu al creà la tiere
  4. Diu al creà l’om
  5. la femine e zontà
  6. la femine e cjapà
  7. la femine e polsà

You now know that lui al creà means he created, and jê e creà means she created. It is not mandatory to include lui (he) or (she); it is however mandatory to include al or e. This means he created can be expressed as lui al creà or al creà. She created can be expressed as jê e creà or e creà.

Using the passât sempliç, say the following in the two ways that you have just read about:

  1. he took
  2. he created man
  3. he created the heaven
  4. she became
  5. she rested

Answers:

  1. lui al cjapà; al cjapà
  2. lui al creà l’om; al creà l’om
  3. lui al creà il cîl; al creà il cîl
  4. jê e deventà; e deventà
  5. jê e polsà; e polsà

Before you move on to the next verse, consider the following sentence: la Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie (Genesis is the first book of the Bible). This sentence breaks down as follows: la Gjenesi (Genesis) e je (is) il prin libri (the first book) de Bibie (of the Bible). E je is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf (present indicative) of the verb jessi (to be). Its masculine equivalent is al è.

lui al è or al è, he is
Diu al è, God is

jê e je or e je, she is
la tiere e je, the earth is

Al è and e je can also be used with the meaning it is: al è dì (it is day), e je gnot (it is night). Il dì is a masculine noun meaning day; la gnot is a feminine noun meaning night. Al è and e je can even be used in the sense of it exists: Diu al è (God exists).

The Friulian adjective prin means first, and the masculine il libri means book. Il prin libri, then, translates as the first book. The Friulian di means of; it has contracted with la to form de.

la Bibie
di + la Bibie
= de Bibie

La Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie.
Genesis is the first book of the Bible.

Before you continue, you may wish to study the contents of the following:

Verset 2

Ma la tiere e jere un vuluç (but the earth was confusion; chaos) e vueide (and empty; and waste), gnot fonde e jere sul mâr (complete darkness was upon the sea), e il spirt di Diu al svualampave (and the spirit of God was fluttering) parsore des aghis (over the waters).

Vocabulary: ma (but), la tiere (earth), la tiere e jere (the earth was), il vuluç (confusion, chaos, disorder; also voluç), vueit (empty), la gnot (night), la gnot fonde (complete darkness), il mâr (sea), sul mâr (upon the sea), e (and), il spirt (spirit), di (of), Diu (God), svualampâ (to flutter).

You have seen how the verb jessi (to be) conjugates in the third-person singular, presint indicatîf: lui al è (he is); jê e je (she is). Lui and can be omitted, but al and e cannot: al è (he is); e je (she is). More examples: Diu al è (God is); la tiere e je (the earth is); al è dì (it is day); e je gnot (it is night).

This second verse begins: ma la tiere e jere. Ma means but. As for e jere, which is in the imperfet indicatîf (imperfect indicative), consider the following: la tiere e je (the earth is); la tiere e jere (the earth was); e je gnot (it is night); e jere gnot (it was night).

The Friulian adjective vueit means empty. Vueit is the masculine form; vueide is the feminine: la tiere e je vueide (the earth is empty; the earth is waste); la tiere e jere vueide (the earth was empty the earth was waste). More examples of the adjective vueit: un armâr vueit (an empty cupboard); une scjate vueide (an empty box). Un is the masculine indefinite article; its feminine equivalent is une.

The masculine noun madrac, which does not appear in the text of this verse, means snake, serpent. Consider these further examples of al è and al jere: il madrac al è (the snake is); il madrac al jere (the snake was); il madrac al è piçul (the snake is small); il madrac al jere piçul (the snake was small).

In addition to empty, the earth is also described in the second verse as having been un vuluç. Some of the notions conveyed by the masculine noun il vuluç (also expressed in Friulian as il voluç) are disorder, chaos, confusion. (It also suggests the idea of a spiral; consider, for example, that the verb invuluçâ [or involuçâ], which you will encounter later in your study, means to wrap up; the root of this verb is vuluç.)

The adjective font can be taken here as meaning absolute, complete. Font is the masculine form; fonde is its feminine form. The Friulian for night is la gnot. Gnot fonde can be taken as complete darkness. The masculine noun il mâr means sea. Sul mâr means upon the sea, where su has contracted with il to form sul.

il mâr
su + il mâr
= sul mâr

In Friulian, the Spirit of God is expressed as il spirt di Diu. The verb svualampâ (or svolampâ) means to flutter; al svualampave (he was fluttering; it was fluttering) is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf. The feminine noun l’aghe means water. Its plural form is lis aghis. Parsore des aghis means over the waters, where parsore di means over, above, and di has contracted with lis to form des.

lis aghis
parsore di + lis aghis
= parsore des aghis

Verset 3

Diu al disè (God said): “Ch’e sedi la lûs” (let there be light [let the light be]) e la lûs e comparì (and there was light [and the light appeared]).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), Diu al disè (God said), ch’e sedi (let be; feminine), la lûs (light), e (and), comparî (to appear).

Recall the following passât sempliç forms: Diu al creà (God created); Diu al polsà (God rested); Diu al cjapà (God took). The verbs here are creâ, polsâ, cjapâ; these verbs all end in â. In this third verse, you find the verbs (to say) and comparî (to appear) in the passât sempliç, which take different endings to the ones you saw above: Diu al disè (God said); la lûs e comparì (the light appeared).

Using the passât sempliç, say the following in Friulian:

  1. the man said
  2. God created the light
  3. the water appeared
  4. God created the waters
  5. the heaven appeared

Answers:

  1. l’om al disè
  2. Diu al creà la lûs
  3. l’aghe e comparì
  4. Diu al creà lis aghis
  5. il cîl al comparì

Ch’e sedi is the feminine, third-person singular, coniuntîf presint (present subjunctive) of the verb jessi (to be); it translates as let be. Ch’e sedi la lûs: let be the light; that is, let there be light.

Say the following in Friulian:

  1. let be the water
  2. let be the earth
  3. let be the night

Answers:

  1. ch’e sedi l’aghe
  2. ch’e sedi la tiere
  3. ch’e sedi la gnot

Verset 4

Diu al viodè (God saw) che la lûs e leve ben (that the light was good; that the light was right) e al metè la lûs (and he put the light) di une bande (to one side; on one side) e il scûr di chê altre (and the darkness to the other; and the darkness on the other).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), viodi (to see), Diu al viodè (God saw), che (that), la lûs (light), lâ ben (to be good, to be right), meti (to put, to place), Diu al metè (God put), la bande (side), meti di une bande (to put to one side), il scûr (darkness), chê (that; feminine), chê altre (that other; feminine), meti di chê altre bande (to put to that other side; that is, to put to the other side).

The Friulian verb viodi means to see; its masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç is al viodè. Its feminine equivalent is e viodè. Examples: Diu al viodè (God saw); l’om al viodè (the man saw); la femine e viodè (the woman saw).

Lâ ben can be taken as meaning to be good, to be right; literally, (to go) ben (well). The masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of is al leve. Its feminine equivalent is e leve. La lûs e leve ben is to be understood as meaning the light was good; the light was right. The opposite of la lûs (light) is il scûr (darkness).

Say the following in Friulian:

  1. God created the light
  2. God created the darkness
  3. the darkness appeared
  4. the man saw the darkness

Answers:

  1. Diu al creà la lûs
  2. Diu al creà il scûr
  3. il scûr al comparì
  4. l’om al viodè il scûr

The verb meti means to put. Its masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç is al metè; its feminine equivalent is e metè. Diu al metè: God put. Diu al metè la lûs: God put the light. The feminine noun la bande means side. Diu al metè la lûs di une bande: God put the light to one side. Diu al metè il scûr di chê altre bande: God put the darkness to the other side. The Friulian for other is altri; this is its masculine form — its feminine form is altre. Examples: chel altri libri (the other book; that other book); chê altre bande (the other side; that other side). Di chê altre bande means to the other side, on the other side; the text of this verse uses di chê altre (to the other, on the other), without repeating bande.

Verset 5

Diu al metè (God put) il non di dì (the name of ‘day’) a la lûs (unto the light) e di gnot (and of ‘night’) al scûr (unto the darkness). E passà une sere (an evening went by) e une buinore (and a morning): prime zornade (first day).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), meti (to put), Diu al metè (God put), il non (name), di (of), il dì (day), la lûs (light), la gnot (night), il scûr (darkness), passâ (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), prin (first; masculine), prime (first; feminine), la zornade (day).

Il non is a masculine noun meaning name. Il non di dì: the name of ‘day’. Il non di gnot: the name of ‘night’. Diu al metè il non di dî a la lûs translates literally as God put the name of ‘day’ unto the light; this is to be taken as meaning God named the light ‘day’. Similarly, God named the darkness ‘night’ is expressed as Diu al metè il non di gnot al scûr, which translates literally as God put the name of ‘night’ unto the darkness. Note the result of the coming of a into contact with il and la:

il scûr
a + il scûr
= al scûr

la lûs
a + la lûs
= a la lûs

La sere is the Friulian for evening; la buinore means morning. In this verse, you find these two feminine nouns used with their indefinite article: une sere, une buinore.

The verb passâ means to pass, to go by, to elapse. For example, la gnot e passà means the night went by. In the text, you read: e passà une sere e une buinore (an evening went by and a morning), prime zornade (first day). La zornade means day. This is the second word for day that you have encountered; the other is il dì. Zornade can be used to emphasise the duration of a day. Examples: une zornade di viaç (one day’s travel; il viaç, travel); une zornade di vot oris (an eight-hour day; une ore, one hour; vot oris, eight hours). In the last example, note that the feminine singular ore forms its plural as oris. You have also already seen that the feminine singular aghe forms its plural as aghis.

Recall the following sentence examined above: la Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie, where prin is the masculine singular form of the adjective meaning first; its feminine equivalent, which you find in this fourth verse, is prime. The plural forms are prins (masculine) and primis (feminine). Examples: la prime zornade (the first day); la prime ore de gnot (the first hour of the night); lis primis oris de gnot (the first hours of the night); il prin libri (the first book); i prins libris (the first books); i prins cinc libris de Bibie (the first five books of the Bible). Recall that de is a contraction of di + la.

la gnot
di + la gnot
= de gnot

Note how il libri formed its plural the examples above: il libri, i libris. Study the following examples: il libri al è interessant (the book is interesting); i libris a son interessants (the books are interesting); il libri al è scrit par furlan (the book is written in Friulian); i doi libris a son scrits par furlan (the two books are written in Friulian).

Verset 6

Diu al disè (God said): “Che si planti (let set itself) la volte dal cîl (the firmament [vault] of the heaven) tal mieç des aghis (in the middle of the waters) e ch’e dividi (and let it separate) chestis aghis (these waters) di chês altris” (from the others [those others]). E cussì al sucedè (and thus it occurred; and it happened so).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), plantâ (to set), plantâsi (to set oneself), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven, sky), la volte dal cîl (the firmament [vault] of the heaven), il mieç (middle), tal mieç di (in the middle of, in the midst of), la aghe (water), dividi (to divide, to separate), altri (other), cussì (so, thus, in this way), sucedi (to happen, to occur).

The verb plantâ means to set. Examples (not found in the text of this verse): Diu al plantà: God set. Diu al plantà la volte dal cîl: God set the firmament (vault) of the heaven. If the verb plantâ means to set, then the reflexive plantâsi means to set oneself. Example (not found in the text of this verse): la volte dal cîl si plantà (the firmament [vault] of the heaven set itself). In la volte dal cîl, di (of) contracts with il (the) to form dal (of the).

il cîl
di + il cîl
= dal cîl

The firmament is referred to in the text as la volte, which translates literally as dome, vault. The firmament is a vault that extends over the expanse of the sky and rests on pillars at the end of the earth. Above the firmament is the celestial ocean. The firmament has openings in it, and it is through these openings that the waters from the celestial ocean come down and rain upon the earth. God dwells above the celestial ocean.

You will recall the feminine, third-person singular coniuntîf presint form ch’e sedi, meaning let be. In this verse, you encounter another present subjunctive: che si planti, meaning let set itself. Che si planti la volte dal cîl: let the firmament of the heaven set itself; let the firmament of the heaven be set. Il mieç means middle. Tal mieç des aghis: in the middle of the waters. Recall that tal is a contraction of in + il, and des is a contraction of di + lis.

il mieç
in + il mieç
= tal mieç

lis aghis
di + lis aghis
= des aghis

The verb dividi means to divide, to separate. In this verse, you find it used in the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint: ch’e dividi (let divide). Ch’e dividi lis aghis: let (it) divide the waters.

The feminine singular cheste means this; its plural form chestis means these. The following examples use the feminine nouns aghe, robe, cjase: cheste aghe (this water); chestis aghis (these waters); cheste robe (this thing); chestis robis (these things); cheste cjase (this house); chestis cjasis (these houses). The feminine singular chê means that; its plural form chês means those. The following examples again use the feminine nouns aghe, robe, cjase: chê aghe (that water); chês aghis (those waters); chê robe (that thing); chês robis (those things); chê cjase (that house); chês cjasis (those houses).

Recall chê altre bande from the fourth verse. You can now create its plural form: chês altris bandis. In the text of the current verse, you encounter chês altris aghis, or rather chês altris, without the repetition of aghis.

The masculine equivalent of cheste is chest (this); its plural form is chescj (these). The masculine equivalent of chê is chel (that); its plural form is chei (those). The following examples use the masculine il zovin: chest zovin (this youth); chescj zovins (these youths); chel zovin (that youth); chei zovins (those youths).

Ch’e dividi chestis aghis di chês altris as used in this verse means let (it) divide these waters from those others. What is understood by di chês altris is di chês altris aghis (from those other waters).

The verb sucedi means to occur, to happen. You find it used in this verse in the third-person singular, passât sempliç. Cussì means so, thus. E cussì al sucedè: and it occurred so.

Verset 7

Diu al fasè la volte dal cîl (God made the firmament [vault] of the heaven) ch’e divît lis aghis (which separates the waters) che a son sot de volte dal cîl (that are below the firmament of the heaven) di chês che a son sore de volte dal cîl (from those that are above the firmament of the heaven).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make, to do), la volte dal cîl (firmament [vault] of the heaven), dividi (to divide, to separate), la aghe (water), a son (they are), sot di (below), sore di (above).

The Friulian verb means to make; it is found here in its masculine, third-person singular, passât sempliç form: al fasè. Diu al fasè: God made.

You encounter the verb dividi again, this time in the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf: e divît. Examples: la volte e divît lis aghis (the firmament divides the waters); il flum al divît la citât (the river divides the city).

In the text of this verse, you now encounter the feminine, third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb jessi (to be): a son. The masculine form is the same. Observe the following examples: l’aghe e je (the water is); lis aghis a son (the waters are); il zovin al è (the youth is); i zovins a son (the youths are).

Sot di means below; sore di means above. In this verse, you see once again how di has contracted with la to form de.

la volte
sot di + la volte
= sot de volte

la volte
sore di + la volte
= sore de volte

Verset 8

e Diu al metè (and God put) a la volte (unto the firmament [vault]) il non di cîl (the name of ‘heaven’). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening went by and a morning): seconde zornade (second day).

Vocabulary: meti (to put), la volte (vault), il non (name), il cîl (heaven, sky), passâ (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), secont (second), la zornade (day).

You have already encountered the usages found in this verse, with the exception of the Friulian for second: secont (masculine); seconde (feminine). Examples: la seconde zornade (the second day); il secont frut (the second child); Zuan Pauli II [Zuan Pauli secont] (John Paul II [John Paul the Second]).

Recall the Friulian for first: prin (masculine); prime (feminine). Examples: la prime zornade (the first day); Carli I [Carli prin] (Charles I [Charles the First]).

Verset 9

Diu al disè (God said): “Lis aghis che a son sot dal cîl (the waters that are below the heaven) che s’ingrumin dutis intun puest (let them all gather into one place) e che al vegni fûr il teren” (and let the ground come forth; and let the dry land come forth) e cussì al sucedè (and thus it occurred; and it happened so).

Vocabulary: (to say), la aghe (water), sot di (below), il cîl (heaven, sky), ingrumâsi (to gather), dut (all), il puest (place), intun puest (in[to] one place), vignî fûr (to come forth), il teren (ground, [dry] land), cussì (thus, so), sucedi (to happen, to occur).

The verb ingrumâ means to gather, to join; the reflexive ingrumâsi means to gather oneself, to gather together. Che s’ingrumin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint. Che s’ingrumin: let (them) gather together.

Il teren means ground, (dry) land. Vignî fûr translates as to come forth, where the verb vignî means to come, and fûr means out, forth. Che al vegni is the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf presint. Che al vegni fûr: let (it) come forth. Che al vegni fûr il teren: let the ground come forth.

Dut means all; this is its masculine singular form. Its feminine equivalent is dute. The plural forms are ducj (masculine) and dutis (feminine). Examples: dut il mês (all month); ducj i vivents (all the creatures); dute la vore (all the work); dutis lis aghis (all the waters).

Say the following in Friulian:

  1. all these things
  2. all these houses
  3. all these rivers
  4. all these youths
  5. all those things
  6. all those houses
  7. all those youths
  8. all those rivers

Answers:

  1. dutis chestis robis
  2. dutis chestis cjasis
  3. ducj chescj flums
  4. ducj chescj zovins
  5. dutis chês robis
  6. dutis chês cjasis
  7. ducj chei zovins
  8. ducj chei flums

Intun is a contraction of in + un. Its feminine equivalent is intune, which is a contraction of in + une. Examples: intun puest (in one place); meti intun puest (to put in one place); intun libri (in a book); intune cjase (in a house).

Verset 10

Diu al metè (God put) il non di tiere (the name of ‘earth’) al teren (unto the ground; unto the dry land) e il non di mâr (and the name of ‘sea’) a lis aghis ingrumadis (unto the gathered waters), e Diu al viodè (and God saw) che al leve ben (that it was good; that it was right).

Vocabulary: meti (to put), il non (name), la tiere (earth), il teren (ground, [dry] land), il mâr (sea), ingrumât (gathered), lis aghis ingrumadis (gathered waters), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good, to be right).

The feminine plural ingrumadis (gathered) is formed from the verb ingrumâ (to gather) encountered in the last verse. The following all mean gathered: ingrumât (masculine singular); ingrumâts (masculine plural); ingrumade (feminine singular); ingrumadis (feminine plural). Aghis ingrumadis: gathered waters.

Note how a has behaved when coming into contact with lis; it has not contracted:

lis aghis
a + lis aghis
= a lis aghis

You have thus far encountered numerous examples of the passât sempliç; for example al creà, from the verb creâ; or al zontà, from the verb zontâ. Friulian also expresses past time using what is known as the passât prossim (recent past). Observe: creâ (to create); al creà (he created); al à creât (he has created). Another example: zontâ (to add); al zontà (he added); al à zontât (he has added). The passât prossim (e.g., al à creât, al à zontât) is used in regular Friulian to express past time; however, up to this point, you have only encountered the passât sempliç (e.g., al creà, al zontà).

Al à creât can be understood quite literally as he has created, where al à means he has (from the verb vê, to have), and creât means created (creât is the past participle of creâ). That said, al à creât is also used in regular Friulian to express he created, in addition to he has created. Observe: Diu al creà il cîl (God created the heaven); Diu al à creât il cîl (God created the heaven; God has created the heaven). Another example: Diu al creà il teren (God created the ground); Diu al à creât il teren (God created the ground; God has created the ground). Another example: Diu al creà l’om (God created man); Diu al à creât l’om (God created man; God has created man).

Yet more examples of the passât prossim: mandâal à mandât (to send — he sent; he has sent); fevelâal à fevelât (to speak — he spoke; he has spoken); cjapâal à cjapât (to take — he took; he has taken); al à cjapât il prin premi (he took first prize; he has taken first prize); studiâal à studiât (to study — he studied; he has studied); al à studiât a Udin (he studied in Udine; he has studied in Udine); viodial à viodût (to see — he saw; he has seen); metial à metût (to put — he put; he has put).

Using the passât prossim, say the following in Friulian:

  1. he played — use zuiâ (to play)
  2. he sang — use cjantâ (to sing)
  3. she thought — use pensâ (to think)

Answers:

  1. al à zuiât
  2. al à cjantât
  3. e à pensât

Verset 11

The text of the verses will no longer appear in their entirety in these notes, as was the case with verses 1-10; only key portions will be reproduced here. To read the verses in their entirety, you must follow the link provided at the top of this post.

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), Diu al disè (God said), la tiere (earth), taponâ (to cover), taponâsi (to cover oneself), vert (green), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), il pomâr (fruit tree), (to make, to do), la pome (fruit), lis pomis (fruits), seont (according to), la cualitât (kind, sort, quality), intor (about oneself), sucedi (to happen, to occur), propit cussì (just so).

The text of this eleventh verse begins with Diu al disè, meaning God said. Friulian has another way to express this: Diu al à dit (God said; God has said). Dit is the past participle of the verb (to say); in the formation of the passât prossim, the verb (to have) is often used as its auxiliary. You looked at some examples of this in the notes at verse 10, such as: fevelâal à fevelât (to speak — he spoke; he has spoken); cjapâal à cjapât (to take — he took; he has taken).

Colloquial Friulian uses the passât prossim to express past time; you have not yet encountered it in the Bible, however. Using the tense that you have encountered thus far, which is the passât sempliç, the above two examples would be expressed as al cjapà and al fevelà.

The Friulian verb taponâ means to cover. For example, Diu al taponà means God covered, whereas Diu al à taponât means God has covered, but also God covered. The reflexive taponâsi means to cover oneself. Che si taponi as used in the text of this verse is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb taponâsi; it means let cover itself. La tiere che si taponi di vert: let the earth cover itself in green; that is, let the earth be covered in vegetation (in green).

You will have perhaps noticed that, in the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint, the conjugated verb has always ended in i; note also that neither e nor al appear in the last two examples below, where si is present: jessich’e sedi (to be — let [it; her] be); vignî fûrche al vegni fûr (to come forth — let [it; him] come forth); dividich’e dividi (to divide — let [it; her] divide); plantâsiche si planti (to set oneself — let set itself; himself; herself); taponâsiche si taponi (to cover oneself — let cover itself; himself; herself).

Vert is the Friulian adjective for green. Examples: vert clâr (light green); vert scûr (dark green); il libri al è vert (the book is green). Vert is used in the text of this verse as a masculine noun: taponâ di vert (to cover in green); taponâsi di vert (to cover oneself in green). You encounter a number of other nouns in this verse: la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), il pomâr (fruit tree), la pome (fruit), lis pomis (fruits). Examples: la tiere che si taponi di jerbe (let the earth cover itself in grass); la tiere che si taponi di pomârs (let the earth cover itself in fruit trees); jerbe cu la semence (grass with its seed [grass with the seed]); pomârs che a fasin lis pomis (fruit trees that make fruits).

In the last example above, a fasin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb (to make). Al fâs; e fâs: he makes; she makes. A fasin: they make (masculine and feminine). The Friulian for they is lôr. Lôr a fasin: they make. Lôr can be omitted, but a is mandatory: a fasin = lôr a fasin. I zovins a fasin: the youths make. Lis feminis a fasin: the women make.

You have already seen how su (on) contracts with il to form sul:

il mâr
su + il mâr
= sul mâr

With la, su becomes su la. As for cun (with), it becomes cu la:

la tiere
su + la tiere
= su la tiere

la semence
cun + la semence
= cu la semence

Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. You read: la tiere che si taponi di vert (let the earth cover itself in green): di jerbe cu la semence (in grass with its seed), di pomârs (in fruit trees) che a fasin su la tiere (that yield [make] on the earth) lis pomis seont la lôr cualitât (fruits according to their kind) e cu la semence intor (and with their seed about them).

Seont la lôr cualitât can be taken as according to their kind. Seont means according to. La cualitât means quality, kind; la lôr cualitât, then, means their kind, where lôr expresses possession. Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives. Observe: la lôr cjase (their house); lis lôr cjasis (their houses); il lôr libri (their book); i lôr libris (their books).

Pomis cu la semence intor: fruits with the seed about them; that is, fruits bearing their seed; seed-bearing fruits.

The text of this verse ends with: e al sucedè propit cussì. You have already seen e cussì al sucedè (and it occurred so; from verses 6 and 9); this time propit (just) has been added: e al sucedè propit cussì (and it occurred just so).

Al sucedè is the passât sempliç form; the passât prossim form is al è sucedût. Al sucedè cussì: it occurred so. Al è sucedût cussì: it (has) occurred so; here, the passât prossim is formed not with the auxiliary (to have), but jessi (to be). Certain verbs use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim; sucedi is one of them. Two other verbs that use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim are (to go) and vignî (to come). Examples: al è lât (he went; he has gone); al è vignût (he came; he has come).

Verset 12

Vocabulary: la tiere (earth), taponâsi (to cover oneself), vert (green), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), seont (according to), la cualitât (kind, sort, quality), il pomâr (fruit tree), (to make, to do), la pome (fruit), intor (about oneself), Diu (God), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good, to be right).

The text of thist verse begins with the verb taponâsi in the passât sempliç: la tiere si taponà di vert (the earth covered itself in green). If you wanted to use the passât prossim instead, you would say: la tiere si è taponade di vert (the earth covered itself in green; the earth has covered itself in green).

In the passât prossim, when a reflexive verb (for example, taponâsi, plantâsi) takes the auxiliary jessi, the past participle agrees in gender and number with its subject. Because the subject la tiere is a feminine singular noun, the past participle is expressed as taponade, not taponât. More examples, this time using fermâsi (to stop oneself, to come to a stop): il timp si è fermât (time stopped itself; time came to a stop); l’aghe si è fermade (the water stopped itself; the water came to a stop). In the notes at verse 11, you saw the passât prossim forms al è lât and al è vignût. The feminine equivalents are: e je lade (she went; she has gone); e je vignude (she came; she has come). As a review, observe now these third-person singular of the passât prossim pairs (masculine; feminine):

al à cjapât; e à cjapât
al à fevelât; e à fevelât

al è lât; e je lade
al è vignût; e je vignude

In the third-person plural, all of the above become:

a àn cjapât (masculine and feminine)
a àn fevelât (masculine and feminine)

a son lâts; a son ladis
a son vignûts; a son vignudis

Using the passât prossim, say the following in Friulian:

  1. they sang
  2. they spoke
  3. they studied

Answers:

  1. (lôr) a àn cjantât
  2. (lôr) a àn fevelât
  3. (lôr) a àn studiât

You encounter again Diu al viodè in the text of this verse, in the passât sempliç. Diu al viodè che al leve ben: God saw that it was good. Using instead the passât prossim, God saw (God has seen) is Diu al à viodût.

Verset 13

Vocabulary: passâ (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), tierç (third), la zornade (day), la tierce zornade (third day).

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian for third: tierç (masculine); tierce (feminine). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening went by and a morning): tierce zornade (third day). Observe: la prime zornade; la seconde zornade; la tierce zornade (the first day; the second day; the third day); il prin libri; il secont libri; il tierç libri (the first book; the second book; the third book).

Verset 14

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), vignî fûr (to come forth), il lusôr ([body of] light), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven, sky), la volte dal cîl (firmament [vault] of the heaven), par dividi (in order to separate, so as to divide), il dì (day), la gnot (night), par che (in order that, so that), segnâ (to mark), la fieste (feast), la zornade (day), la anade (year).

The masculine lusôr means light, luminary; that is, a celestial body that gives off light: il soreli, sun; la lune, moon. In verse 9, you encountered the following, where the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint is used: che al vegni fûr il teren (let the ground come forth; let the [dry] land come forth). In the text of the current verse, you now meet with the third-person plural: che a vegnin fûr lusôrs (let lights come forth).

Recall that tal is a contraction of in + il. In this verse, in now contracts with la to form te. Te volte dal cîl: in the firmament of the heaven. Observe the masculine (tal) and feminine (te) forms:

il mieç
in + il mieç
= tal mieç

la volte
in + la volte
= te volte

Dividi il dì de gnot means to separate the day from the night. You find this text preceded by par, meaning in order to, so as to. Par dividi il dì de gnot: in order to separate the day from the night.

The verb segnâ means to mark, to act as a sign. Lis fiestis is the plural of the feminine la fieste (feast); lis zornadis is the plural of the feminine la zornade (day); and lis anadis is the plural of the feminine l’anade (year).

In the same way that Friulian has and zornade for day, where zornade can be used to emphasise the duration of a day, it also has an and anade, where anade can be used to emphasise the duration of a year. Supplementary examples: chest an (this year); l’an passât (last year); un om di trente agns (a man of thirty years; that is, a thirty-year-old man), une anade di ploie (a year of rain).

Par che a segnin: in order that they mark; so that they mark. You find here the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint. You have seen other examples of the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint: che s’ingrumin; che a vegnin fûr.

Say the following in Friulian:

  1. let them come forth
  2. so that they come forth
  3. let it set itself
  4. let them set themselves
  5. so that it sets itself
  6. let it mark
  7. so that they mark

Answers:

  1. che a vegnin fûr
  2. par che a vegnin fûr
  3. che si planti
  4. che si plantin
  5. par che si planti
  6. che al segni; ch’e segni
  7. par che a segnin

Verset 15

Vocabulary: il lusôr ([body of] light), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven, sky), la volte dal cîl (firmament [vault] of the heaven), la lûs (light), fâ lûs (to shine), la tiere (earth), sucedi (to occur, to happen), propit cussì (just so).

Fâ lûs means to shine; literally, to make light. Lusôrs te volte dal cîl par fâ lûs su la tiere: lights in the firmament of the heaven to shine upon the earth. Par fâ lûs means in order to shine, so as to shine, or simply to shine, omitting in order, so as. E al sucedè propit cussì: and it occurred just so.

Verset 16

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make), Diu al fasè (God made), doi (two), biel (fine, grand), il lusôr ([body of] light), grant (large, great), plui grant (larger, greater), tant che (as, in function of), il paron (ruler, master), il dì (day), piçul (small, little), plui piçul (smaller, lesser), la gnot (night), la stele (star).

The Friulian for two is doi; this is its masculine form — its feminine form is dôs. Examples: doi libris (two books); dôs cjasis (two houses). The Friulian for one also has a masculine and feminine form: un, une. Examples: un libri (a book; one book); une cjase (a house; one house). Un, doi, trê: one, two, three. How to count in Friulian.

The adjective biel is very often used in the sense of fine, beautiful; it is better taken here in the sense of grand, great. Diu al fasè doi biei lusôrs: God made two great lights. Observe the forms taken by biel: biel (masculine singular); biei (masculine plural); biele (feminine singular); bielis (feminine plural).

The Friulian for large, great is grant; for small, little, it is piçul. Plui means more; plui grant, then, means larger, greater, and plui piçul means smaller, lesser. Chel plui grant: the greater (larger) one; that is, the sun (il soreli). Chel plui piçul: the lesser (smaller) one; that is, the moon (la lune). Related: il Signôr al è grant (the Lord is great).

The masculine noun paron means ruler, master. Il paron dal dì: the ruler of the day. Il paron de gnot: the ruler of the night. Tant che paron dal dì: as ruler of the day. Tant che paron de gnot: as ruler of the night.

The feminine noun stele means star; its plural form is stelis. Diu al fasè […] lis stelis: God made the stars.

Verset 17

Vocabulary: Diu (God), ju (them), plantâ (to set), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven, sky), la volte dal cîl (firmament [vault] of the heaven), par che (in order that, so that), la lûs (light), fâ lûs (to shine), la tiere (earth).

Diu ju plantà: God set them; note the absence of al here, where ju is present. Diu al plantà: God set. Diu ju plantà: God set them.

Par che a fasessin lûs su la tiere: so that they shone (were making light) upon the earth. A fasessin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb fâ. The subjunctive (coniuntîf) is required after par che. Observe the following examples: par che a fevelin (so that they speak); par che a fevelassin (so that they spoke); par che a fasin lûs (so that they make light); par che a fasessin lûs (so that they made light).

Verset 18

Vocabulary: par che (in order that, so that), paronâ (to rule, to master), il dì (day), la gnot (night), dividi (to separate, to divide), la lûs (light), il scûr (darkness), Diu (God), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be go, to be right).

The verb paronâ is related to the noun paron that you have already encountered; it means to rule, to master. Examples: paronâ une situazion (to master a situation; to have control of a situation); paronâ la lenghe furlane (to master the Friulian language); paronâ al dì (to rule over the day).

You have more examples of the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet in this verse: par che a paronassin (so that they ruled); par che a dividessin (so that they separated so that they divided).

Verset 19

Vocabulary: passâ (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), cuart (fourth), la zornade (day), la cuarte zornade (fourth day).

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian word for fourth: cuart (masculine), cuarte (feminine).

Verset 20

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), la aghe (water), jessi dut (to be all, to be entirely), il sbulium (gush), la robe (thing, matter), vîf (living, alive), la robe vive (living matter), un ucel (bird; also uciel), svolâ (to fly), parsore di (above), la tiere (earth), in face di (in the face of, in front of, before), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven, sky), la volte dal cîl (firmament [vault] of the heaven), sucedi (to occur, to happen), cussì (thus, so).

Lis aghis che a sedin: let the waters be. If we were to transform this into singular form, we obtain: l’aghe ch’e sedi (let the water be). Note that it is possible to contract or not the definite article la before a noun beginning with a vowel: la aghe, l’aghe. What the waters are to be is a sbulium (gush) of robe vive (living matter). You read: lis aghis che a sedin (let the waters be) dut (all) un sbulium (a gush) di robe vive (of living matter). Vive is the feminine form of the adjective vîf (living, alive).

Consider now at the verb svolâ (to fly): al svole (it flies); a svolin (they fly). In the presint indicatîf, the endings of the conjugated svolâ are e (third-person singular) and in (third-person plural); this is the rule of infinitives ending in â. Examples, using the verbs cjantâ (to sing) and lavorâ (to work): al cjante; a cjantin (he sings; they sing); al lavore; a lavorin (he works; they work). Here now is how they change in the coniuntîf presint: che al svoli; che a svolin (let it fly; let them fly); che al cjanti; che al cjantin (let him sing; let them sing); che al lavori; che al lavorin (let him work; let them work).

Parsore di means above; parsore de tiere, then, means above the earth. I ucei che a svolin parsore de tiere in face de volte dal cîl: let the birds fly above the earth in the face of the firmament [vault] of the heaven; let the birds fly above the earth before the firmament [vault] of the heaven.

Say the following in Friulian:

  1. above the earth
  2. above the waters
  3. below the firmament
  4. the firmament of the heaven
  5. the ruler of the day
  6. the ruler of the night
  7. the first book of the Bible

Answers:

  1. parsore de tiere
  2. parsore des aghis
  3. sot de volte
  4. la volte dal cîl
  5. il paron dal dì
  6. il paron de gnot
  7. il prin libri de Bibie

Verset 21

Vocabulary: Diu (God), creâ (to create), grant (great, large), la besteone (large beast), il mâr (sea), dut ce che (all that, everything that), sgliciâ (to slip about), sbuliâ (to teem), la aghe (water), seont; seunt (according to), la raze (sort, kind), la bestie (beast), la ale (wing), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good, to be right).

Diu al creà lis grandis besteonis dal mâr: God created the great beasts of the sea.

You find two new verbs in this verse: sgliciâ (to slip about), sbuliâ (to teem). They both take the e ending in their third-person singular, presint indicatîf forms: al sglicìe, al sbulìe. Dut ce che al sglicìe: everything that slips about. Dut ce che al sbulìe: everything that teems.

In verse 1, you encountered tal imprin (in the beginning), which is a contraction of in + l’imprin. In the text of the current verse, you now have ta l’aghe, which is a contraction of in + l’aghe. Ta l’aghe: in the water. Following are the different contractions of in that you have encountered:

tal = in + il
tal mieç (in the middle)

tal = in + l’ (masculine)
tal imprin (in the beginning)

te = in + la
te volte (in the firmament)

ta l’ = in + l’ (feminine)
ta l’aghe (in the water)

intun = in + un
intun puest (in one place)

Of intun, the feminine equivalent is intune (in + une), but you have not yet encountered this in the text of the verses. Example: intune citât (in a city, in one city). Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

In verse 11 of this same chapter, you encountered seont la lôr cualitât (according to their kind). In the current verse, you now have seont la sô raze (according to its kind). You also read: e dutis lis bestiis cu lis alis seunt la lôr raze (and all the winged beasts [beasts with wings] according to their kind). Seunt is a variant of seont. Note the plural formations: la bestie; lis bestiis (beast; beasts); la ale; lis alis (wing; wings).

Compare now la sô (his, her, its) and la lôr (their): la sô cualitât; la lôr cualitât (his [her, its] kind; their kind); la sô raze; la lôr raze (his [her, its] kind; their kind); la sô citât; la lôr citât (his [her, its] city; their city); la sô cjase; la lôr cjase (his [her, its] house; their house). La sô and la lôr are followed by a feminine singular noun; with a masculine singular noun, use il so and il lôr (there is no accent in so, unlike in the feminine): il so libri; il lôr libri (his [her, its] book; their book); il so regâl; il lôr regâl (his [her, its] gift; their gift). With plural nouns: i siei libris; i lôr libris (his [her, its] books; their books); lis sôs cjasis; lis lôr cjasis (his [her, its] houses; their houses). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Versets 22-23

Vocabulary: alore (then), Diu (God), ju (them), benedî (to bless), (to say), disint (saying), lâ in amôr (to mate, to reproduce), jemplâ (to fill), la aghe (water), il mâr (sea), lis aghis dal mâr (waters of the sea), un ucel (bird; also uciel), la tiere (earth), passâ (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), cuint (fifth), la zornade (day), la cuinte zornade (fifth day).

Verse 22: The verb benedî means to bless; it is used here in the passât sempliç. Alore Diu ju benedì: then God blessed them. Note that al does not appear in the presence of ju: Diu al benedì (God blessed); Diu ju benedì (God blessed them). Disint (saying) is the present participle of the verb (to say): alore Diu ju benedì disint (then God blessed them, saying). Lâ in amôr means to mate, to reproduce. The masculine noun amôr is the Friulian for love, but it is to be taken here as referring to sexual reproduction: lâ in amôr, to go into sexual reproduction (that is, to mate, to reproduce). Lait is the second-person plural imperative of the verb lâ; it means go, as a command, when speaking to more than one person (or, as in this verse, to more than one creature). Lait in amôr: mate, reproduce. You have another second-person plural imperative with jemplait, from the verb jemplâ (to fill). Jemplait means fill, as a command, when speaking to more than one person (or creature). Jemplait lis aghis dal mâr: fill the waters of the sea. I ucei che a ledin in amôr su la tiere: let the birds reproduce on the earth.

Verse 23: The Friulian for fifth is cuint (masculine); cuinte (feminine). Examples: la cuinte zornade (fifth day); il cuint libri (fifth book); la cuinte cjase (fifth house); il cuint om (fifth man).

Verset 24

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), la tiere (earth), butâ fûr (to put forth, to bring forth), il nemâl (animal), seont; sont (according to), la raze (sort, kind), il besteam (cattle, oxen), strissinâsi (to slither), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), sucedi (to occur, to happen), cussì (thus, so).

One of the meanings of the verb butâ is to throw. Example: al à butât par tiere il libri (he threw the book on the ground). The verb butâ can also take the sense of to produce; butâ fûr is to be taken as meaning to put forth, to put out, to bring forth. La tiere ch’e buti fûr nemâi seont la lôr raze: let the earth put forth creatures (animals) according to their kind; may the earth bring forth creatures (animals) according to their sort.

The verb strissinâsi means to slither. You read: besteam (cattle), nemâi che si strissinin (creatures [animals] that slither) e bestiis salvadiis (and wild beasts) sont la lôr raze (according to their kind). The Friulian for according to has been expressed in three different ways in this chapter: seont, seunt, sont; the standardised form is seont.

The adjective salvadi means wild. The Friulian for wild beast is la bestie salvadie; its plural form is lis bestiis salvadiis. Observe: salvadi (masculine singular); salvadis (masculine plural); salvadie (feminine singular); salvadiis (feminine plural).

Verset 25

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make, to do), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), seont (according to), la lôr raze (their kind, their sort), il besteam (cattle, oxen), la sô raze (its kind, its sort), dut (all), strissinâsi (to slither), su la tiere (on the earth), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good, to be right).

Diu al à fatis lis bestiis salvadiis: God made the wild beasts. Fat, the past participle of the verb fâ, is expressed here in the feminine plural as fatis to agree in gender and number with its direct object bestiis salvadiis following it. The four forms of this past participle are: fat (masculine singular); fats (masculine plural); fate (feminine singular); fatis (feminine plural). You will become familiar with the use of the different forms of past participles as you progress in your study.

Of dut (all), the four forms are: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Dutis lis bestiis che si strissinin su la tiere: all creatures (beasts) that slither on the earth.

Verset 26

Vocabulary: podopo (then), Diu (God), (to say), (to make, to do), fasìn (let us make, let us do), un om (man), il stamp (form, manner, stamp), sul nestri stamp (in our image, in our likeness), semeâ (to resemble; also someâ), il paron (ruler, master), fâ di paron (to act as ruler, to serve as master), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), il besteam (cattle, oxen), il nemâl (animal), salvadi (wild), dut (all), la bestie (beast), strissinâsi (to slither), par tiere (along the ground, along the earth).

Podopo Diu al disè: then God said. The English to make in our image, to make in our likeness finds its equivalent in Friulian as fâ sul nestri stamp, where stamp is a masculine noun meaning form, manner, stamp; it is question here of the divine stamp. Fasìn is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ; it means let us make. As for il nestri, it means our. Fasìn l’om sul nestri stamp: let us make man in our image; let us make man after our likeness. Observe the following examples of nestri: il nestri libri (our book); i nestris libris (our books); la nestre cjase (our house); lis nestris cjasis (our houses); Pari nestri (Our Father); Crist Nestri Signôr (Christ Our Lord). Il nestri stamp means our stamp; in sul nestri stamp, su (on) combines with il to form sul: sul nestri stamp (after [on] our stamp; that is, in our image, after our likeness). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Che nus semei: let him resemble us; may he resemble us. The verb semeâ (someâ) means to resemble; more examples: l’om al somee (man resembles); l’om nus somee (man resembles us), che l’om nus somei (let man resemble us). In the presence of nus, the atonic al is not expressed. Al somee is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf, whereas al somei is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint. You encounter the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint yet again in al fasi: che al fasi di paron (let him rule; may he rule [may he serve as ruler]) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven), sul besteam (over the cattle), sui nemâi salvadis (over the wild animals) e su dutis lis bestiis (and over all the creatures [beasts]) che si strissinin par tiere (that slither along the earth). Observe: al fâs (he makes; he does); che al fasi (let him make, let him do; may he make, may he do).

The Friulian for fish is il pes; its plural form is i pes. Examples: i pes dal mâr (the fish[es] of the sea); i pes dal flum (the fish[es] of the river); i pes dal lât (the fish[es] of the lake). Observe the following examples of salvadi (wild), taking note of how it is modified according to gender and number: un nemâl salvadi (wild animal), i nemâi salvadis (wild animals), une bestie salvadie (wild beast), lis bestiis salvadiis (wild beasts).

Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. In this verse, you find a number of them: sul, sui, dal.

Verset 27

Vocabulary: Diu (God), creâ (to create), un om (man), sul so stamp (in his image, after his likeness), lu (him), sul stamp di Diu (in the image of God, after the likeness of God), ju (them), il mascjo (male), la femine (female, woman).

Il so means his, her, its; it is used before a masculine singular noun. Example: il so libri (his, her, its book). You read that God created man sul so stamp (in his image, after his likeness).

You have encountered ju (them) before; you now encounter lu (him): Diu lu creà (God created him); Diu ju creà (God created them). The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu or ju: Diu al creà (God created); Diu lu creà (God created him). Diu […] ju creà mascjo e femine: God created them male and female.

Verset 28

Vocabulary: alore (then), Diu (God), ju (them), benedî (to bless), (to say), disint (saying), lâ in amôr (to mate, to reproduce), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself, to increase; also moltiplicâsi), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule, to dominate), il paron (ruler, master), fâ di parons (to act as rulers, to serve as masters), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), ducj (all; masculine plural), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to slither), su la tiere (on the earth, on the ground).

Alore Diu ju benedì disint: then God blessed them, saying. You have already encountered the second-person plural, imperative forms lait and jemplait, from the verbs and jemplâ. In this verse, you now encounter a number of new second-person plural imperatives: multiplicaitsi, paronait and fasêt, from the verbs multiplicâsi, paronâ and fâ. The verb multiplicâsi means to multiply oneself, to increase and paronâ means to rule. God says: lait in amôr, multiplicaitsi (mate and multiply), jemplait la tiere (fill the earth), paronaitle (dominate it) e fasêt di parons (and rule [serve as rulers]) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven) e su ducj i nemâi che si strissinin su la tiere (and over all the creatures [animals] that slither on the earth).

Verbs taking their infinitive in â use the ending ait in the second-person plural imperative: jemplait, paronait, multiplicait. From the verb fâ, you have now encountered the imperative forms fasìn (first-person plural) and fasêt (second-person plural). In the text of this verse, the imperative paronait has le attached to it; le stands in for la tiere: paronaitle (dominate it). Review the forms taken by dut (all) with these examples: dut il mês (all month); ducj i nemâi (all the animals); dute la vore (all the work); dutis lis bestiis (all the beasts).

Verset 29

Vocabulary: Diu (God), zontâ (to add), viodi (to see), us (unto you), (to give), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), la tiere (earth), il pomâr (fruit tree), la pome (fruit), fâ pomis (to bear fruit[s]), intor (about oneself), a saran (they shall be), il vuestri (your), la mangjative (food).

Diu al zontà: God added. Viodêt is the second-person plural imperative of the verb viodi; this is now the second time that you encounter a second-person plural imperative ending in êt: the other was fasêt. Viodêt che us doi dutis lis jerbis cu la semence che a son su la tiere: see, I give you all seed-bearing grasses on the earth; literally, see that unto you I give all the grasses with the seed that are on the earth. The verb means to give: jo o doi; o doi (I give). In the text of this verse, you find us doi, where us means unto you (plural): us doi (I give to you). The atonic o is not expressed in the presence of us: o doi (I give); us doi (I give to you).

A son means they are; this is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf. In the futûr sempliç (simple future), a son becomes a saran (they will be). Observe: a son su la tiere (they are on the earth); a saran su la tiere (they will be on the earth).

Ducj i pomârs che a fasin pomis cu la semence intor: all fruit trees that bear fruit(s) with their seed about them. A saran vuestre mangjative: they shall be your food. Recall that il nestri means our; in the text of this verse, you now encounter il vuestri, meaning your (plural). Observe: il vuestri libri (your book); i vuestris libris (your books); la vuestre cjase (your house); lis vuestris cjasis (your houses).

Verset 30

Vocabulary: a (to, unto), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), dut ce che (all that, everything that), strissinâsi (to slither), su la tiere (on the earth, on the ground), vê intorsi (to have about oneself), la vite (life), (to give), la mangjative (food), par mangjative (for food, as food), vert (green), cussì (thus, so), sucedi (to occur, to happen).

Si strissine is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of strissinâsi. God says: a lis bestiis salvadiis (to the wild beasts), ai ucei dal cîl (to the birds of the heaven) e a dut ce che si strissine su la tiere (and to all that slithers on the earth) e che al à intorsi la vite (and that has life about it), jo o doi par mangjative (I give for food) dut ce che al è vert (all that is green).

Study the wording dut ce che: dut ce che si strissine (all that slithers, everything that slithers); dut ce che al à intorsi la vite (all that has life about it, everything that has life about it); dut ce che al è vert (all that is green, everything that is green).

Verset 31

Vocabulary: Diu (God), cjalâ (to look [at, upon]), ce che (that which), (to make, to do), lâ propit ben (to be good indeed, to be right indeed), passà (to go by, to elapse), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), sest (sixth), la zornade (day), la seste zornade (sixth day).

Al veve fat (he had made, he had done) is the third-person singular of the trapassât prossim. Observe the following pairs: al à fat; al veve fat (he made; he had made); ce che al à fat; ce che al veve fat (that which he made; that which he had made). You read: Diu al cjalà ce che al veve fat (God looked upon that which he had made) e al leve propit ben (and it was good indeed).

You now learn the Friulian for sixth: sest (masculine), seste (feminine). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening went by and a morning): seste zornade (sixth day).


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