Friulian language series: Gjenesi 1, tal imprin

Gjenesi

Tal imprin

This post begins your study of the Friulian language through the Bible, beginning with the book of Genesis: il libri de Gjenesi. The text which you will read, rendered into standard, contemporary Friulian, was translated by Antoni Beline. Made available by Glesie Furlane in Bibie par un popul, it is the ideal text from which to work in your study of Friulian. You will learn an incredibly diverse range of usages, and you will learn them very well indeed.

The Friulian for Bible is la Bibie or la Biblie. La Bibie par furlan means the Bible in Friulian. The name of the Friulian language in Friulian itself is il furlan. A chapter of the Bible is called un cjapitul, and a verse is called un verset. You will begin your study with the story of creation, or la creazion, as told in the first chapter of the book of Genesis.

Read Gjenesi 1

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 1. An archived version of the text is found here.

Verset 1

Tal imprin (in the beginning) Diu al creà (God created) cîl e tiere (heaven and earth).

Vocabulary: in (in), tal (in the), l’imprin (the beginning), tal imprin (in the beginning), Diu (God), creâ (to create), Diu al creà (God created), il cîl (the heaven), e (and), la tiere (the earth).

The Friulian name for God is Diu. Imprin is a masculine noun meaning beginning; l’imprin means the beginning. Tal imprin translates as in the beginning, where the Friulian in has contracted with l’ to form tal (in the). Overview: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

l’imprin
in + l’imprin
= tal imprin

The Friulian verb creâ means to create. The masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç (simple past) is lui al creà (he created). In this verse, you find Diu al creà, meaning God created. Diu replaces lui (he), and the inclusion of al is mandatory. The masculine noun cîl means heaven; it is also the Friulian for sky. The feminine noun tiere means earth. Il is the masculine definite article; the feminine definite article is la. Consider now the following: lui al creà il cîl; lui al creà la tiere; lui al creà cîl e tiere (he created the heaven; he created the earth; he created heaven and earth); Diu al creà il cîl; Diu al creà la tiere; Diu al creà cîl e tiere (God created the heaven; God created the earth; God created heaven and earth).

Supplementary examples of the passât sempliç, using different verbs: lui al zontà (he added; zontâ, to add); lui al polsà (he rested; polsâ, to rest); lui al deventà (he became; deventâ, to become); Diu al cjapà l’om (God took the man; cjapâ, to take). In that last example, you find the Friulian for man: om (masculine noun). The Friulian for woman is femine (feminine noun). Examine now the following examples: lui al creà (he created); jê e creà (she created); lui al zontà (he added); jê e zontà (she added); lui al polsà (he rested); jê e polsà (she rested). Lui means he; means she. In the same way that the inclusion of al is mandatory in the masculine, the inclusion of e is mandatory in the feminine.

Say the following in Friulian, using the passât sempliç: 1. the man became; 2. the man took; 3. God created the earth; 4. God created man; 5. the woman added; 6. the woman took; 7. the woman rested. Answers: 1. l’om al deventà; 2. l’om al cjapà; 3. Diu al creà la tiere; 4. Diu al creà l’om; 5. la femine e zontà; 6. la femine e cjapà; 7. la femine e polsà.

You now know that lui al creà means he created, and jê e creà means she created. It is not mandatory to include lui (he) or (she); it is however mandatory to include al or e. This means he created may be expressed as lui al creà or al creà. She created may be expressed as jê e creà or e creà.

Using the passât sempliç, say the following in the two ways which you have just read about: 1. he took; 2. he created man; 3. he created the heaven; 4. she became; 5. she rested. Answers: 1. lui al cjapà; al cjapà; 2. lui al creà l’om; al creà l’om; 3. lui al creà il cîl; al creà il cîl; 4. jê e deventà; e deventà; 5. jê e polsà; e polsà.

Before moving on to the next verse, consider the following sentence: la Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie (Genesis is the first book of the Bible). This sentence breaks down so: la Gjenesi (Genesis) e je (is) il prin libri (the first book) de Bibie (of the Bible). E je is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf (present indicative) of the verb jessi (to be). Its masculine equivalent is al è.

lui al è or al è, he is
Diu al è, God is

jê e je or e je, she is
la tiere e je, the earth is

Al è and e je may also be used with the meaning it is: al è dì (it is day); e je gnot (it is night). Il dì is a masculine noun meaning day; la gnot is a feminine noun meaning night. Al è and e je may even be used in the sense of it exists: Diu al è.

The Friulian adjective prin means first, whereas the masculine libri means book. Il prin libri, then, translates as the first book. The Friulian di means of; it has contracted with la to form de.

la Bibie
di + la Bibie
= de Bibie

La Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie.
Genesis is the first book of the Bible.

You may wish to study the contents of the following:

Verset 2

Ma la tiere e jere un vuluç (but the earth was a whorl) e vueide (and empty), gnot fonde e jere sul mâr (absolute darkness was upon the sea), e il spirt di Diu al svualampave (and the spirit of God was fluttering) parsore des aghis (over the waters).

Vocabulary: ma (but), la* tiere (earth), la tiere e jere (the earth was), il vuluç (whorl), vueit (empty), la gnot (night), font (absolute), la gnot fonde (absolute darkness), il mâr (sea), sul mâr (upon the sea), e (and), il spirt (spirit), di (of), Diu (God), svualampâ (to flutter), parsore di (over), la aghe (water), lis aghis (waters). *In this and all subsequent vocabulary lists, the definite article il or la (meaning the) will be provided to indicate the gender of a noun, but, for the sake of simplicity, will henceforth not be rendered in the English definition; for instance, la gnot translates literally as the night but is simply shown as night in the vocabulary lists.

You have seen how the verb jessi (to be) conjugates in the third-person singular, presint indicatîf: lui al è (he is); jê e je (she is). Lui and may be omitted, but al and e may not: al è (he is); e je (she is). More examples: Diu al è (God is); la tiere e je (the earth is); al è dì (it is day); e je gnot (it is night).

This second verse begins: ma la tiere e jere. Ma means but. As for e jere, which is in the imperfet indicatîf (imperfect indicative), consider the following: la tiere e je (the earth is); la tiere e jere (the earth was); e je gnot (it is night); e jere gnot (it was night).

The Friulian adjective vueit means empty. Vueit is the masculine form; vueide is the feminine: la tiere e je vueide (the earth is empty); la tiere e jere vueide (the earth was empty). Supplementary examples of the adjective vueit: un armâr vueit (an empty cupboard); une scjate vueide (an empty box). Un is the masculine indefinite article; its feminine equivalent is une.

The masculine noun madrac, which does not appear in the text of this verse, means serpent. Consider these further examples of al è and al jere: il madrac al è (the serpent is); il madrac al jere (the serpent was); il madrac al è galiot (the serpent is sly); il madrac al jere galiot (the serpent was sly).

In addition to empty, the earth is also described in this second verse as having been un vuluç (whorl). The masculine voluç (also expressed as voluç) is etymologically related to the English volute.

The adjective font is read here as absolute. Font is the masculine form; fonde is its feminine form. The Friulian for night is the feminine noun gnot, and gnot fonde is the Friulian for absolute darkness. The masculine noun mâr means sea. Sul mâr means upon the sea, where su has contracted with il to form sul.

il mâr
su + il mâr
= sul mâr

In Friulian, the spirit of God is expressed as il spirt di Diu. The verb svualampâ (or svolampâ) means to flutter; al svualampave (he/it was fluttering) is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf. The feminine noun aghe means water; its plural form is aghis. Consider: l’aghe or la aghe (the water); lis aghis (the waters). Parsore des aghis means over the waters, where parsore di means over, and di has contracted with lis to form des.

lis aghis
parsore di + lis aghis
= parsore des aghis

Verset 3

Diu al disè (God said): ch’e sedi la lûs (let the light be) e la lûs e comparì (and the light appeared).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), Diu al disè (God said), ch’e sedi (let be; feminine), la lûs (light), e (and), comparî (to appear).

Recall the following passât sempliç forms: Diu al creà (God created); Diu al polsà (God rested); Diu al cjapà (God took). The verbs here are creâ, polsâ, cjapâ; these verbs all end in â. In this third verse, you find the verbs (to say) and comparî (to appear) in the passât sempliç, which take different endings to the ones seen above: Diu al disè (God said); la lûs e comparì (the light appeared).

Using the passât sempliç, say the following in Friulian: 1. the man said; 2. God created the light; 3. the water appeared; 4. God created the waters; 5. the heaven appeared. Answers: 1. l’om al disè; 2. Diu al creà la lûs; 3. l’aghe e comparì; 4. Diu al creà lis aghis; 5. il cîl al comparì.

Ch’e sedi is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint (present subjunctive) of the verb jessi (to be); it translates as let be. Ch’e sedi la lûs: let the light be.

Say the following in Friulian: 1. let the water be; 2. let the earth be; 3. let the night be. Answers: 1. ch’e sedi l’aghe; 2. ch’e sedi la tiere; 3. ch’e sedi la gnot.

Verset 4

Diu al viodè (God saw) che la lûs e leve ben (that the light was good) e al metè la lûs (and he put the light) di une bande (to the one side) e il scûr di chê altre (and the darkness to that other).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), viodi (to see), Diu al viodè (God saw), che (that), la lûs (light), lâ ben (to be good), meti (to put), Diu al metè (God put), la bande (side), meti di une bande (to put to the one side), il scûr (darkness), chê (that; feminine), chê altre (that other; feminine), meti di chê altre bande (to put to that other side).

The Friulian verb viodi means to see; its masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç is al viodè. Its feminine equivalent is e viodè. Examples: Diu al viodè (God saw); l’om al viodè (the man saw); la femine e viodè (the woman saw).

Lâ ben is read as to be good. Of the verb lâ, the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf is al leve. Its feminine equivalent is e leve. La lûs e leve ben means the light was good. The opposite of la lûs (light) is il scûr (darkness).

Say the following in Friulian: 1. God created the light; 2. God created the darkness; 3. the darkness appeared; 4. the man saw the darkness. Answers: 1. Diu al creà la lûs; 2. Diu al creà il scûr; 3. il scûr al comparì; 4. l’om al viodè il scûr.

The verb meti means to put. Its masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç is al metè; its feminine equivalent is e metè. Diu al metè: God put. Diu al metè la lûs: God put the light. The feminine noun la bande means side. Diu al metè la lûs di une bande: God put the light to the one side. Diu al metè il scûr di chê altre [bande]: God put the darkness to that other side. The Friulian for other is altri; this is its masculine form — its feminine form is altre. Examples: chel altri libri (that other book); chê altre bande (that other side).

Verset 5

Diu al metè (God put) il non di dì (the name of ‘day’) a la lûs (unto the light) e di gnot (and of ‘night’) al scûr (unto the darkness). E passà une sere (an evening passed by) e une buinore (and a morning): prime zornade (first day).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), meti (to put), Diu al metè (God put), il non (name), di (of), il dì (day), la lûs (light), la gnot (night), il scûr (darkness), passâ (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), prin (first; masculine), prime (first; feminine), la zornade (day).

Non is a masculine noun meaning name. Il non di dì: the name of ‘day’. Il non di gnot: the name of ‘night’. Diu al metè il non di dî a la lûs translates literally as God put the name of ‘day’ unto the light; this is to be taken as meaning God named the light ‘day’. Similarly, God named the darkness ‘night’ is expressed as Diu al metè il non di gnot al scûr, which translates literally as God put the name of ‘night’ unto the darkness. Note the result when a comes into contact with the definite articles il and la:

il scûr
a + il scûr
= al scûr

la lûs
a + la lûs
= a la lûs

La sere is the Friulian for evening; la buinore means morning. In this verse, you find these two feminine nouns used with their indefinite article: une sere; une buinore (an evening; a morning).

The verb passâ means to pass {by}. For instance, la gnot e passà means the night passed by. In the text, you read: e passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning), prime zornade (first day). La zornade means day. This is the second word for day which you have encountered; the other is il dì. Zornade may be used to emphasise the duration of a day. Examples: une zornade di viaç (one day’s journey); une zornade di vot oris (an eight-hour day). In the last example, the feminine singular ore (hour) forms its plural as oris. You have also already seen that the feminine singular aghe forms its plural as aghis.

Recall the following sentence examined above: la Gjenesi e je il prin libri de Bibie, where prin is the masculine singular form of the adjective meaning first; its feminine equivalent, which you find in this fourth verse, is prime. The plural forms are prins (masculine) and primis (feminine). Examples: la prime zornade (the first day); la prime ore de gnot (the first hour of the night); lis primis oris de gnot (the first hours of the night); il prin libri (the first book); i prins libris (the first books); i prins cinc libris de Bibie (the first five books of the Bible). Recall that de is a contraction of di + la.

la gnot
di + la gnot
= de gnot

Note how il libri formed its plural in the examples above: il libri, i libris. Study the following examples: il libri al è interessant (the book is interesting); i libris a son interessants (the books are interesting); il libri al è scrit par furlan (the book is written in Friulian); i doi libris a son scrits par furlan (the two books are written in Friulian).

Verset 6

Diu al disè (God said): che si planti la volte dal cîl (let the vault of the heaven plant itself) tal mieç des aghis (in the middle of the waters) e ch’e dividi (and let it divide) chestis aghis (these waters) di chês altris (from those others). E cussì al sucedè: and so it came to pass.

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), plantâ (to plant), plantâsi (to plant oneself), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), il mieç (middle), tal mieç di (in the middle of), la aghe (water), dividi (to divide), altri (other), cussì (so), sucedi (to come to pass).

The verb plantâ means to plant. Examples (not from the text of this verse): Diu al plantà (God planted); Diu al plantà la volte dal cîl (God planted the vault of the heaven). If the verb plantâ means to set, then the reflexive plantâsi means to plant oneself. Example (not from the text of this verse): la volte dal cîl si plantà (the vault of the heaven planted itself). In la volte dal cîl, di (of) contracts with il (the) to form dal (of the).

il cîl
di + il cîl
= dal cîl

The firmament is referred to in the text as la volte, meaning vault. The firmament is a vault which extends over the expanse of the sky and rests on pillars at the end of the earth. Above the firmament is the celestial ocean. The firmament has openings in it; through these openings, the waters from the celestial ocean rain down upon the earth. God dwells above the celestial ocean.

You will recall the feminine, third-person singular coniuntîf presint form ch’e sedi, meaning let be. In this verse, another present subjunctive is encountered: che si planti, meaning let plant itself. Consider: la volte dal cîl si plante (the vault of the heaven plants itself); che si planti la volte dal cîl (let the vault of the heaven plant itself). Il mieç means middle. Tal mieç des aghis: in the middle of the waters. Recall that tal is a contraction of in + il, and des is a contraction of di + lis.

il mieç
in + il mieç
= tal mieç

lis aghis
di + lis aghis
= des aghis

The verb dividi means to divide. In this verse, you find it used in the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint: ch’e dividi (let {it} divide). Ch’e dividi lis aghis: let it divide the waters.

The feminine singular cheste means this; its plural form chestis means these. The following examples use the feminine nouns aghe, robe, cjase: cheste aghe (this water); chestis aghis (these waters); cheste robe (this matter); chestis robis (these matters); cheste cjase (this house); chestis cjasis (these houses). The feminine singular chê means that; its plural form chês means those. The following examples again use the feminine nouns aghe, robe, cjase: chê aghe (that water); chês aghis (those waters); chê robe (that matter); chês robis (those matters); chê cjase (that house); chês cjasis (those houses).

Call to mind chê altre bande from the fourth verse; you are now able to create its plural form: chês altris bandis. In the text of the current verse, you encounter chês altris aghis, or rather chês altris, without the repetition of aghis.

Of cheste, the masculine equivalent is chest (this); its plural form is chescj (these). The masculine equivalent of chê is chel (that); its plural form is chei (those). The following instances use the masculine zovin: chest zovin (this young man); chescj zovins (these young men); chel zovin (that young man); chei zovins (those young men).

Ch’e dividi chestis aghis di chês altris as used in this verse means let it divide these waters from those others. By di chês altris, that which is understood is di chês altris aghis (from those other waters).

The verb sucedi means to come to pass. It is employed in this verse in the third-person singular of the passât sempliç. Cussì means so. E cussì al sucedè: and so it came to pass.

Verset 7

Diu al fasè la volte dal cîl (God made the vault of the heaven) ch’e divît lis aghis (which divides the waters) che a son sot de volte dal cîl (which are under the vault of the heaven) di chês che a son sore de volte dal cîl (from those which are over the vault of the heaven),

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), dividi (to divide), la aghe (water), a son (they are), sot di (under), sore di (over).

The Friulian verb means to make, to do; it is found here in its masculine, third-person singular, passât sempliç form: al fasè. Diu al fasè: God made.

You encounter the verb dividi again, this time in the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf: e divît. Examples: la volte e divît lis aghis (the vault divides the waters); il flum al divît la citât (the river divides the city).

In the text of this verse, you now encounter the feminine, third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb jessi (to be): a son. The masculine form is the same. Observe the following examples: l’aghe e je (the water is); lis aghis a son (the waters are); il zovin al è (the young man is); i zovins a son (the young men are).

Sot di means under; sore di means over. In this verse, you see once again how di has contracted with la to form de.

la volte
sot di + la volte
= sot de volte

la volte
sore di + la volte
= sore de volte

Verset 8

e Diu al metè (and God put) a la volte (unto the vault) il non di cîl (the name of ‘heaven’). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning): seconde zornade (second day).

Vocabulary: meti (to put), la volte (vault), il non (name), il cîl (heaven), passâ (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), secont (second), la zornade (day).

You have already encountered the usages found in this verse, with the exception of the Friulian for second: secont (masculine); seconde (feminine). Examples: la seconde zornade (the second day); il secont fi (the second son); Zuan Pauli secont (John Paul the Second).

Recall the Friulian for first: prin (masculine); prime (feminine). Examples: la prime zornade (the first day); Carli prin (Charles the First).

Verset 9

Diu al disè (God said): lis aghis che a son sot dal cîl (the waters which are under the heaven) che s’ingrumin dutis intun puest (let them all gather themselves into one place) e che al vegni fûr il teren (and let the ground come forth), e cussì al sucedè (and so it came to pass).

Vocabulary: (to say), la aghe (water), sot di (under), il cîl (heaven), ingrumâsi (to gather oneself), dut (all), il puest (place), intun puest (into one place), vignî fûr (to come forth), il teren (ground), cussì (so), sucedi (to come to pass).

The verb ingrumâ means to gather; the reflexive ingrumâsi means to gather oneself. Che s’ingrumin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint.

Il teren means ground. Vignî fûr translates as to come forth, where the verb vignî means to come, and fûr means forth, out. Che al vegni is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint. Che al vegni fûr: let {it} come forth. Che al vegni fûr il teren: let the ground come forth.

Dut means all; this is its masculine singular form. Its feminine equivalent is dute. The plural forms are ducj (masculine) and dutis (feminine). Examples: dut il mês (all month); ducj i oms (all the men); dute la vore (all the work); dutis lis aghis (all the waters).

Say the following in Friulian: 1. all these matters; 2. all these houses; 3. all these rivers; 4. all these young men; 5. all those matters; 6. all those houses; 7. all those young men; 8. all those rivers. Answers: 1. dutis chestis robis; 2. dutis chestis cjasis; 3. ducj chescj flums; 4. ducj chescj zovins; 5. dutis chês robis; 6. dutis chês cjasis; 7. ducj chei zovins; 8. ducj chei flums.

Intun is a contraction of in + un. Its feminine equivalent is intune, which is a contraction of in + une. Examples: intun puest (in one place); meti intun puest (to put in{to} one place); intun libri (in a book); intune cjase (in a house).

Verset 10

Diu al metè (God put) il non di tiere (the name of ‘earth’) al teren (unto the ground) e il non di mâr (and the name of ‘sea’) a lis aghis ingrumadis (unto the gathered waters), e Diu al viodè (and God saw) che al leve ben (that it was good).

Vocabulary: meti (to put), il non (name), la tiere (earth), il teren (ground), il mâr (sea), ingrumât (gathered), lis aghis ingrumadis (gathered waters), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good).

The feminine plural ingrumadis (gathered) is formed from the verb ingrumâ (to gather) encountered in the last verse. The following all mean gathered: ingrumât (masculine singular); ingrumâts (masculine plural); ingrumade (feminine singular); ingrumadis (feminine plural). Aghis ingrumadis: gathered waters.

Note how a has behaved here when coming into contact with lis; it has not contracted:

lis aghis
a + lis aghis
= a lis aghis

You have thus far encountered numerous examples of the passât sempliç; for instance: al creà, from the verb creâ; and al zontà, from the verb zontâ. Friulian also expresses past time using that which is known as the passât prossim (recent past). Observe: creâ (to create); al creà (he created); al à creât (he has created). Another example: zontâ (to add); al zontà (he added); al à zontât (he has added). The passât prossim (e.g., al à creât, al à zontât) is used in spoken Friulian to express past time; however, up to this point, you have only encountered the passât sempliç (e.g., al creà, al zontà), used in literature.

Al à creât may be read literally as he has created, where al à means he has (from the verb vê, to have), and creât means created (creât is the past participle of creâ). That said, al à creât is also used in spoken Friulian to express he created, in addition to he has created. Observe: Diu al creà il cîl (God created the heaven); Diu al à creât il cîl (God created the heaven; God has created the heaven). Another example: Diu al creà il teren (God created the ground); Diu al à creât il teren (God created the ground; God has created the ground). Another example: Diu al creà l’om (God created man); Diu al à creât l’om (God created man; God has created man).

Yet more examples of the passât prossim: mandâal à mandât (to send — he sent; he has sent); fevelâal à fevelât (to speak — he spoke; he has spoken); cjapâal à cjapât (to take — he took; he has taken); al à cjapât il prin premi (he took first prize; he has taken first prize); studiâal à studiât (to study — he studied; he has studied); al à studiât a Udin (he studied in Udine; he has studied in Udine); viodial à viodût (to see — he saw; he has seen); metial à metût (to put — he put; he has put).

Using the passât prossim, say the following in Friulian: 1. he played — use zuiâ (to play); 2. he sang — use cjantâ (to sing); 3. she thought — use pensâ (to think). Answers: 1. al à zuiât; 2. al à cjantât; 3. e à pensât.

Verset 11

Diu al disè (God said): la tiere che si taponi di vert (let the earth conceal itself in green): di jerbe cu la semence (in grass with seed), di pomârs (in fruit trees) che a fasin su la tiere (which make on the earth) lis pomis seont la lôr cualitât (fruits according to their kind) e cu la semence intor (and with seed about). E al sucedè propit cussì: and it came to pass squarely so.

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), Diu al disè (God said), la tiere (earth), taponâ (to conceal), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), vert (green), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), il pomâr (fruit tree), (to make), la pome (fruit), lis pomis (fruits), seont (according to), la cualitât (kind), intor (about), sucedi (to come to pass), propit cussì (squarely so).

The text of this eleventh verse begins with Diu al disè, meaning God said. Friulian has another way to express this: Diu al à dit (God said; God has said). Dit is the past participle of the verb (to say); in the formation of the passât prossim, the verb (to have) is often used as its auxiliary. You looked at some examples of this in the notes at verse 10, such as: fevelâal à fevelât (to speak — he spoke; he has spoken); cjapâal à cjapât (to take — he took; he has taken).

Spoken Friulian uses the passât prossim to express past time; you have not yet encountered it in the Bible, however. Using the tense which you have encountered thus far, which is the passât sempliç, the above two examples would be expressed as al cjapà and al fevelà.

The Friulian verb taponâ means to conceal. For example, Diu al taponà means God concealed, whereas Diu al à taponât means God has concealed, but also God concealed. The reflexive taponâsi means to conceal oneself. Che si taponi as used in the text of this verse is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb taponâsi; it means let {it} conceal itself. La tiere che si taponi di vert: let the earth conceal itself in green.

You will have perhaps noticed that, in the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint, the conjugated verb has always ended in i; note also that neither e nor al appear in the last two examples below, where si is present: jessich’e sedi (to be — let {it; her} be); vignî fûrche al vegni fûr (to come forth — let {it; him} come forth); dividich’e dividi (to divide — let {it; her} divide); plantâsiche si planti (to plant oneself — let {it; him; her} plant itself; himself; herself); taponâsiche si taponi (to conceal oneself — let {it; him; her} conceal itself; himself; herself).

Vert is the Friulian adjective for green. Examples: vert clâr (light green); vert scûr (dark green); il libri al è vert (the book is green). Vert is used in the text of this verse in the sense of vegetation.

You encounter a number of nouns in this verse: la jerbe (grass); la semence (seed); il pomâr (fruit tree); la pome (fruit); lis pomis (fruits). Examples: la tiere che si taponi di jerbe (let the earth conceal itself in grass); la tiere che si taponi di pomârs (let the earth conceal itself in fruit trees); jerbe cu la semence (grass with seed); pomârs che a fasin lis pomis (fruit trees which make fruits).

In the last example above, a fasin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb (to make). Al fâs; e fâs: he makes; she makes. A fasin: they make (masculine and feminine). The Friulian for they is lôr. Lôr a fasin: they make. Lôr may be omitted, but a is mandatory: a fasin = lôr a fasin. I zovins a fasin: the young men make. Lis feminis a fasin: the women make.

You have already seen how su (on) contracts with il to form sul:

il mâr
su + il mâr
= sul mâr

With la, su becomes su la. As for cun (with), it becomes cu la:

la tiere
su + la tiere
= su la tiere

la semence
cun + la semence
= cu la semence

Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

Seont la lôr cualitât may be read according to their kind. Seont means according to. La cualitât means quality, kind; la lôr cualitât, then, means their kind, where lôr expresses possession. Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives. Observe: la lôr cjase (their house); lis lôr cjasis (their houses); il lôr libri (their book); i lôr libris (their books).

Pomis cu la semence intor: fruits with seed about, which is to say, fruits with their seed about them; fruits bearing their seed; seed-bearing fruits.

The text of this verse ends with: e al sucedè propit cussì. You have already seen e cussì al sucedè (and so it came to pass, from verses 6 and 9); this time propit (squarely) has been added: e al sucedè propit cussì (and it came to pass squarely so).

Al sucedè is the passât sempliç form; the passât prossim form is al è sucedût. Al sucedè cussì: so it came to pass. Al è sucedût cussì: so has it come to pass; here, the passât prossim is formed not with the auxiliary (to have), but jessi (to be). Certain verbs use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim; sucedi is one of them. Two other verbs which use the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim are (to go) and vignî (to come). Examples: al è lât (he has gone; he went); al è vignût (he has come; he came).

Verset 12

La tiere si taponà di vert (the earth concealed itself in green): di jerbis cu la semence seont la lôr cualitât (in grasses with seed according to their kind), di pomârs che a fasin lis pomis seont la lôr cualitât (in fruit trees which make fruits according to their kind) e cu la semence intor (and with seed about), e Diu al viodè (and God saw) che al leve ben (that it was good).

Vocabulary: la tiere (earth), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), vert (green), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), seont (according to), la cualitât (kind), il pomâr (fruit tree), (to make), la pome (fruit), intor (about), Diu (God), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good).

The text of this verse begins with the verb taponâsi in the passât sempliç: la tiere si taponà di vert (the earth concealed itself in green). If you were to use the passât prossim instead, so would it be said: la tiere si è taponade di vert (the earth concealed itself in green; the earth has concealed itself in green).

In the passât prossim, when a reflexive verb (for instance, taponâsi, plantâsi) takes the auxiliary jessi, the past participle agrees in gender and number with its subject. For the subject la tiere is a feminine singular noun, the past participle is then expressed as taponade, not taponât. More examples, this time using fermâsi (to halt oneself): l’om si è fermât (the man halted himself); la femine si è fermade (the woman halted herself). In the notes at verse 11, you saw the passât prossim forms al è lât and al è vignût. The feminine equivalents are: e je lade (she went; she has gone); e je vignude (she came; she has come). As review, observe now these third-person singular of the passât prossim pairs (masculine; feminine):

al à cjapât; e à cjapât
al à fevelât; e à fevelât

al è lât; e je lade
al è vignût; e je vignude

In the third-person plural, the above become:

a àn cjapât (masculine and feminine)
a àn fevelât (masculine and feminine)

a son lâts; a son ladis
a son vignûts; a son vignudis

Using the passât prossim, say the following in Friulian: 1. they sang; 2. they spoke; 3. they studied. Answers: 1. (lôr) a àn cjantât; 2. (lôr) a àn fevelât; 3. (lôr) a àn studiât.

Encountered again in the text of this verse os Diu al viodè, in the passât sempliç. Diu al viodè che al leve ben: God saw that it was good. Using the passât prossim now, Diu al viodè is expressed as: Diu al à viodût (God has seen; God saw).

Verset 13

E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning): tierce zornade (third day).

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), tierç (third), la zornade (day).

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian for third: tierç (masculine); tierce (feminine). Observe: la prime zornade; la seconde zornade; la tierce zornade (the first day; the second day; the third day); il prin libri; il secont libri; il tierç libri (the first book; the second book; the third book).

Verset 14

Diu al disè (God said): che a vegnin fûr lusôrs (let lights come forth) te volte dal cîl (in the vault of the heaven), par dividi il dì de gnot (to divide the day from the night): par che a segnin (that they may mark) lis fiestis, lis zornadis, e lis anadis (the feasts, the days and the years);

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), vignî fûr (to come forth), il lusôr (light), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), par ({in order} to), dividi (to divide), il dì (day), la gnot (night), par che ({in order} that), segnâ (to mark), la fieste (feast), la zornade (day), la anade (year).

The masculine lusôr means light; in this context, it refers to a celestial body which gives off light: il soreli, sun; la lune, moon. In verse 9, encountered was the following, where the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint is employed: che al vegni fûr il teren (let the ground come forth). In the text of the current verse, you now meet with the third-person plural: che a vegnin fûr lusôrs (let lights come forth).

Recall that tal is a contraction of in + il. In this verse, in now contracts with la to form te. Te volte dal cîl: in the vault of the heaven. Observe the masculine (tal) and feminine (te) forms:

il mieç
in + il mieç
= tal mieç

la volte
in + la volte
= te volte

Dividi il dì de gnot means to divide the day from the night. This text is preceded by par, meaning {in order} to. Par dividi il dì de gnot: {in order} to divide the day from the night.

The verb segnâ means to mark. Fiestis is the plural of the feminine fieste (feast); zornadis is the plural of the feminine zornade (day); and anadis is the plural of the feminine anade (year).

In the same way that Friulian has and zornade for day, where zornade may be used to emphasise the duration of a day, it also has an and anade, where anade may be used to emphasise the duration of a year. Supplementary examples: chest an (this year); l’an passât (last year); un om di trente agns (a man of thirty years {of age}); une anade di ploie (a year of rain).

Par che a segnin: that they may mark; or in the common language: so that they mark; in order that they mark. Found here is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint. You have seen other examples of the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint: che s’ingrumin; che a vegnin fûr.

Say the following in Friulian: 1. let them come forth; 2. so that they come forth; 3. let it plant itself; 4. let them plant themselves; 5. that it may plant itself; 6. let it mark; 7. so that they mark. Answers: 1. che a vegnin fûr; 2. par che a vegnin fûr; 3. che si planti; 4. che si plantin; 5. par che si planti; 6. che al segni; ch’e segni; 7. par che a segnin.

Verset 15

lusôrs te volte dal cîl (lights in the vault of the heaven) par fâ lûs su la tiere (to make light upon the earth). E al sucedè propit cussì: and it came to pass squarely so.

Vocabulary: il lusôr (light), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), la lûs (light), fâ lûs (to make light), la tiere (earth), sucedi (to come to pass), propit cussì (squarely so).

Verset 16

Diu al fasè doi biei lusôrs (God made two great lights): chel plui grant (that greater one) tant che paron dal dì (as ruler of the day) e chel plui piçul (and that lesser one) tant che paron de gnot (as ruler of the night), e lis stelis (and the stars).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make), Diu al fasè (God made), doi (two), biel (great), il lusôr (light), chel (that one), grant (great), plui grant (greater), tant che (as), il paron (ruler), il dì (day), piçul (little), plui piçul (lesser), la gnot (night), la stele (star).

The Friulian for two is doi; this is its masculine form — its feminine form is dôs. Examples: doi libris (two books); dôs cjasis (two houses). The Friulian for one also has a masculine and feminine form: un, une. Examples: un libri (a book; one book); une cjase (a house; one house). Un, doi, trê: one, two, three. How to count in Friulian.

The adjective biel is very often used in the sense of fine; however, it is read in the text of this verse as great. Diu al fasè doi biei lusôrs: God made two great lights. Observe the forms taken by biel: biel (masculine singular); biei (masculine plural); biele (feminine singular); bielis (feminine plural). The Friulian for great is more commonly expressed as grant, whereas piçul is used for little. Plui means more; plui grant, then, means greater, and plui piçul means lesser. Chel plui grant: that greater one, which, in context, refers to the sun: il soreli. Chel plui piçul: that lesser one, which, in context, refers to the moon: la lune. Related example: il Signôr al è grant (the Lord is great).

The masculine noun paron means ruler. Il paron dal dì: the ruler of the day. Il paron de gnot: the ruler of the night. Tant che paron dal dì: as ruler of the day. Tant che paron de gnot: as ruler of the night.

The feminine noun stele means star; its plural form is stelis. Diu al fasè lis stelis: God made the stars.

Verset 17

Diu ju plantà (God planted them) te volte dal cîl (in the vault of the heaven) par che a fasessin lûs su la tiere (that they should make light upon the earth),

Vocabulary: Diu (God), ju (them), plantâ (to plant), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), la lûs (light), fâ lûs (to make light), la tiere (earth).

Diu ju plantà: God planted them. Note the absence of al here, where ju is present. Diu al plantà: God planted. Diu ju plantà: God planted them.

A fasessin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb fâ. The subjunctive (coniuntîf) is required after par che.

Verset 18

par che a paronassin al dì e a la gnot (that they should rule over the day and over the night) e par che a dividessin la lûs dal scûr (and that they should divide the light from the darkness), e Diu al viodè che al leve ben (and God saw that it was good).

Vocabulary: paronâ (to rule), il dì (day), la gnot (night), dividi (to divide), la lûs (light), il scûr (darkness), Diu (God), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good).

The verb paronâ is related to the noun paron already encountered; it means to rule. In other contexts, paronâ may also be read as to master. Examples: paronâ une situazion (to master a situation; to have control of a situation); paronâ la lenghe furlane (to master the Friulian tongue).

You have more examples of the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet in this verse: par che a paronassin (that they should rule); par che a dividessin (that they should divide).

Verset 19

E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning): cuarte zornade (fourth day).

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), cuart (fourth), la zornade (day).

The only new usage occurring in this verse is the Friulian for fourth: cuart (masculine), cuarte (feminine).

Verset 20

Diu al disè (God said): lis aghis che a sedin (let the waters be) dut un sbulium di robe vive (an entire gush of living matter) e i ucei che a svolin (and let the birds fly) parsore de tiere (over the earth) in face de volte dal cîl (in face of the vault of the heaven), e al sucedè cussì (and so it came to pass).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), la aghe (water), jessi (to be), dut (entire), il sbulium (gush), la robe (matter), vîf (living), un ucel (bird; also uciel), svolâ (to fly), parsore di (over), la tiere (earth), in face di (in face of), la volte (vault), il cîl (heaven), sucedi (to come to pass), cussì (so).

Lis aghis che a sedin: let the waters be. Were this to be transformed into singular form, so would be obtained: l’aghe ch’e sedi (let the water be). Note that it is possible to contract or not the definite article la before a noun beginning with a vowel: la aghe, l’aghe. That which the waters are to be is a sbulium (gush) of robe vive (living matter). You read: lis aghis che a sedin (let the waters be) dut un sbulium (an entire gush) di robe vive (of living matter). Vive is the feminine form of the adjective vîf (living).

Consider now the verb svolâ (to fly): al svole (it flies); a svolin (they fly). In the presint indicatîf, the endings of the conjugated svolâ are e (third-person singular) and in (third-person plural); this is the rule of infinitives ending in â. Examples, using the verbs cjantâ (to sing) and lavorâ (to work): al cjante; a cjantin (he sings; they sing); al lavore; a lavorin (he works; they work). Here now is how they change in the coniuntîf presint: che al svoli; che a svolin (let it fly; let them fly); che al cjanti; che a cjantin (let him sing; let them sing); che al lavori; che a lavorin (let him work; let them work).

Parsore di means over; parsore de tiere, then, means over the earth.

Say the following in Friulian: 1. over the earth; 2. over the waters; 3. under the vault; 4. the vault of the heaven; 5. the ruler of the day; 6. the ruler of the night; 7. the first book of the Bible. Answers: 1. parsore de tiere; 2. parsore des aghis; 3. sot de volte; 4. la volte dal cîl; 5. il paron dal dì; 6. il paron de gnot; 7. il prin libri de Bibie.

Verset 21

Diu al creà lis grandis besteonis dal mâr (God created the great monsters of the sea) e dut ce che al sglicìe (and all that which slips about) e che al sbulìe ta l’aghe (and which teems in the water) seont la sô raze (according to its kind) e dutis lis bestiis cu lis alis seunt la lôr raze (and all the beasts with wings according to their kind); e Diu al viodè che al leve ben (and God saw that it was good).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), creâ (to create), grant (great), la besteone (monster), il mâr (sea), dut ce che (all that which), sgliciâ (to slip about), sbuliâ (to teem), la aghe (water), seont; seunt (according to), la raze (kind), la bestie (beast), la ale (wing), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good).

Two new verbs are encountered in this verse: sgliciâ (to slip about), sbuliâ (to teem). They both take the e ending in their third-person singular, presint indicatîf forms: al sglicìe, al sbulìe. Dut ce che al sglicìe: all that which slips about. Dut ce che al sbulìe: all that which teems.

In verse 1, you met tal imprin (in the beginning), which is a contraction of in + l’imprin. In the text of the current verse, you now have ta l’aghe, which is a contraction of in + l’aghe. Ta l’aghe: in the water. Following are the different contractions of in which you have encountered:

tal = in + il
tal mieç (in the middle)

tal = in + l’ (masculine)
tal imprin (in the beginning)

te = in + la
te volte (in the vault)

ta l’ = in + l’ (feminine)
ta l’aghe (in the water)

intun = in + un
intun puest (in one place)

Of intun, the feminine equivalent is intune (in + une), but you have not yet encountered this in the text of the verses. Example: intune citât (in a city, in one city). Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

In verse 11 of this same chapter, you encountered seont la lôr cualitât (according to their kind). In the current verse, you now have seont la sô raze (according to its kind). You also read: e dutis lis bestiis cu lis alis seunt la lôr raze (and all the beasts with wings according to their kind). Seunt is a variant of seont. Note the plural formations: la bestie; lis bestiis (beast; beasts); la ale; lis alis (wing; wings).

Consider now la sô (his, her, its) and la lôr (their): la sô cualitât; la lôr cualitât (his {her, its} kind; their kind); la sô raze; la lôr raze (his {her, its} kind; their kind); la sô citât; la lôr citât (his {her, its} city; their city); la sô cjase; la lôr cjase (his {her, its} house; their house). La sô and la lôr are followed by a feminine singular noun; with a masculine singular noun, use il so and il lôr (there is no accent in so, unlike in the feminine): il so libri; il lôr libri (his {her, its} book; their book); il so regâl; il lôr regâl (his {her, its} gift; their gift). With plural nouns: i siei libris; i lôr libris (his {her, its} books; their books); lis sôs cjasis; lis lôr cjasis (his {her, its} houses; their houses). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Verset 22

Alore Diu ju benedì (then God blessed them) disint (saying): lait in amôr (go into love), jemplait lis aghis dal mâr (fill the waters of the sea) e i ucei che a ledin in amôr su la tiere (and let the birds go into love on the earth).

Vocabulary: alore (then), Diu (God), ju (them), benedî (to bless), (to say), disint (saying), (to go), l’amôr (love), jemplâ (to fill), la aghe (water), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird), la tiere (earth).

The verb benedî means to bless; it is used here in the passât sempliç. Alore Diu ju benedì: then God blessed them. Note that al does not appear in the presence of ju: Diu al benedì (God blessed); Diu ju benedì (God blessed them). Disint (saying) is the present participle of the verb (to say): alore Diu ju benedì disint (then God blessed them, saying).

The masculine noun amôr is the Friulian for love and refers here to sexual reproduction. Lait is the second-person plural imperative of the verb lâ; it means go, as a command, when speaking to more than one. Lait in amôr: go into love.

You have another second-person plural imperative with jemplait, from the verb jemplâ (to fill). Jemplait means fill, as a command, when speaking to more than one person (or creature). Jemplait lis aghis dal mâr: fill the waters of the sea.

Verset 23

E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning): cuinte zornade (fifth day).

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), cuint (fifth), la zornade (day).

The Friulian for fifth is cuint (masculine); cuinte (feminine). Examples: la cuinte zornade (the fifth day); il cuint libri (the fifth book); la cuinte cjase (the fifth house); il cuint om (the fifth man).

Verset 24

Diu al disè (God said): la tiere ch’e buti fûr nemâi (let the earth cast forth animals) seont la lôr raze (according to their kind): besteam (cattle), nemâi che si strissinin (animals which drag themselves) e bestiis salvadiis (and wild beasts) sont la lôr raze (according to their kind), e al sucedè cussì (and so it came to pass).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), la tiere (earth), butâ fûr (to cast forth), il nemâl (animal), seont; sont (according to), la raze (kind), il besteam (cattle), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), sucedi (to come to pass), cussì (so).

The Friulian for according to has been expressed in three different ways in this chapter: seont, seunt, sont; the standardised form is seont.

The adjective salvadi means wild. The Friulian for wild beast is bestie salvadie; its plural form is bestiis salvadiis. Observe: salvadi (masculine singular); salvadis (masculine plural); salvadie (feminine singular); salvadiis (feminine plural).

Verset 25

Diu al à fatis lis bestiis salvadiis (God made the wild beasts) seont la lôr raze (according to their kind), il besteam (the cattle) seont la sô raze (according to its kind) e dutis lis bestiis che si strissinin su la tiere (and all the beasts which drag themselves on the earth) seont la lôr raze (according to their kind), e Diu al viodè che al leve ben (and God saw that it was good).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to make), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), seont (according to), la lôr raze (their kind), il besteam (cattle), la sô raze (its kind), dut (all), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), su la tiere (on the earth), viodi (to see), lâ ben (to be good).

Diu al à fatis lis bestiis salvadiis: God made the wild beasts. Fat, the past participle of the verb fâ, is expressed here in the feminine plural as fatis to agree in gender and number with its direct object bestiis salvadiis following it. The four forms of this past participle are: fat (masculine singular); fats (masculine plural); fate (feminine singular); fatis (feminine plural). You will become familiar with the use of the different forms of past participles as you progress in your study.

Of dut (all), the four forms are: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). Dutis lis bestiis che si strissinin su la tiere: all the beasts which drag themselves on the earth.

Verset 26

Podopo Diu al disè (thereupon God said): fasìn l’om (let us make man) sul nestri stamp (after our likeness), che nus semei (let him resemble us) e che al fasi di paron (and let him act as ruler) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven), sul besteam (over the cattle), sui nemâi salvadis (over the wild animals) e su dutis lis bestiis che si strissinin par tiere (and over all the beasts which drag themselves along the earth).

Vocabulary: podopo (thereupon), Diu (God), (to say), (to make), fasìn (let us make), un om (man), il stamp (likeness), sul nestri stamp (after our likeness), semeâ (to resemble), il paron (ruler), fâ di paron (to act as ruler), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), il besteam (cattle), il nemâl (animal), salvadi (wild), dut (all), la bestie (beast), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), par tiere (along the earth).

The English to make in our likeness finds its equivalent in the Friulian fâ sul nestri stamp. Fasìn is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ; it means let us make. As for il nestri, it means our. Fasìn l’om sul nestri stamp: let us make man after our likeness. Il nestri stamp means our likeness. In sul nestri stamp, the preposition su (on) combines with the masculine definite article il to form sul. Sul nestri stamp: literally, on our likeness, the sense whereof is after our likeness. Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Observe the following supplementary examples of nestri: il nestri libri (our book); i nestris libris (our books); la nestre cjase (our house); lis nestris cjasis (our houses); Pari nestri (Our Father); Crist Nestri Signôr (Christ Our Lord).

Che nus semei: let him resemble us. The verb semeâ (someâ) means to resemble; more examples: l’om al somee (man resembles); l’om nus somee (man resembles us), che l’om nus somei (let man resemble us). In the presence of nus, the atonic al is not expressed. Al somee is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf, whereas al somei is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint. You encounter the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint yet again in al fasi: che al fasi di paron (let him act as ruler).

The Friulian for fish is il pes; its plural form is i pes. Examples: i pes dal mâr (the fishes of the sea); i pes dal flum (the fishes of the river); i pes dal lât (the fishes of the lake).

Observe the following examples of salvadi (wild), taking note of how it is modified according to gender and number: nemâl salvadi (wild animal); nemâi salvadis (wild animals); bestie salvadie (wild beast); bestiis salvadiis (wild beasts).

Consult: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. In this verse, you find a number of them: sul, sui, dal.

Verset 27

Diu al creà l’om (God created man) sul so stamp (after his likeness), lu creà (he created him) sul stamp di Diu (after the likeness of God), ju creà (he created them) mascjo e femine (male and female).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), creâ (to create), un om (man), il stamp (likeness), sul so stamp (after his likeness), lu (him), sul stamp di Diu (after the likeness of God), ju (them), il mascjo (male), la femine (woman).

Il so means his, her, its; it is used before a masculine singular noun. Example: il so libri (his, her, its book). You read that God created man sul so stamp (after his likeness), where sul translates literally as on the.

You have encountered ju (them) before; you now encounter lu (him): Diu lu creà (God created him); Diu ju creà (God created them). The atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu or ju: Diu al creà (God created); Diu lu creà (God created him).

Mascjo e femine: Customarily thus do the following words translate from the Friulian: un om (a man); une femine (a woman); un mascjo (a male); une mascje (a female). In this way, man and woman would normally be rendered in Friulian as om e femine, whereas male and female would be rendered mascjo e mascje. The text instead employs mascjo e femine, which, if using the above definitions, translates as male and woman. That said, the above definitions may be too rigid here, wherefore rendering mascjo e femine as man and woman or male and female is defensible. This choice of wording in the Friulian would perhaps seem to be influenced by the Vulgate masculum et feminam creavit eos, but on this point I merely speculate.

Verset 28

Alore Diu ju benedì (then God blessed them) disint (saying): lait in amôr (go into love), multiplicaitsi (multiply yourselves), jemplait la tiere (fill the earth), paronaitle (rule over it) e fasêt di parons (and act as rulers) sui pes dal mâr (over the fishes of the sea), sui ucei dal cîl (over the birds of the heaven) e su ducj i nemâi che si strissinin su la tiere (and over all the animals which drag themselves on the earth).

Vocabulary: alore (then), Diu (God), ju (them), benedî (to bless), (to say), disint (saying), (to go), l’amôr (love), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule {over}), il paron (ruler), fâ di parons (to act as rulers), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), ducj (all; masculine plural), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), su la tiere (on the earth).

You have already encountered the second-person plural, imperative forms lait and jemplait, from the verbs and jemplâ. In this verse, you now encounter a number of new second-person plural imperatives: multiplicaitsi, paronait and fasêt, from the verbs multiplicâsi, paronâ and fâ.

Regular verbs taking their infinitive in â use the ending ait in the second-person plural imperative: jemplait, paronait, multiplicait. From the verb fâ, you have now encountered the imperative forms fasìn (first-person plural) and fasêt (second-person plural). In the text of this verse, the imperative paronait has le attached to it; le stands in for la tiere: paronaitle (rule over it).

Consider the following: multiplicait (multiply {something}); multiplicaitsi (multiply yourselves).

Review the forms taken by dut (all) with these examples: dut il mês (all month); ducj i nemâi (all the animals); dute la vore (all the work); dutis lis bestiis (all the beasts).

Verset 29

Diu al zontà (God added): viodêt che us doi (see that I give to you) dutis lis jerbis cu la semence (all the grasses with seed) che a son su la tiere (which are on the earth), ducj i pomârs che a fasin pomis cu la semence intor ({and} all the fruit trees which make fruits with seed about): a saran vuestre mangjative (they shall be your food).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), zontâ (to add), viodi (to see), us (unto you), (to give), la jerbe (grass), la semence (seed), la tiere (earth), il pomâr (fruit tree), la pome (fruit), fâ pomis (to make fruits), intor (about), a saran (they shall be), il vuestri (your), la mangjative (food).

Viodêt is the second-person plural imperative of the verb viodi; this is now the second instance where you encounter a second-person plural imperative ending in êt: the other was fasêt.

The verb means to give: jo o doi; o doi (I give). In the text of this verse, you find us doi, where us means unto you (plural): us doi (I give to you). The atonic o is not expressed in the presence of us: o doi (I give); us doi (I give to you).

A son means they are; this is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf. In the futûr sempliç (simple future), a son becomes a saran (they will be). Observe: a son su la tiere (they are on the earth); a saran su la tiere (they will be on the earth).

Recall that il nestri means our; in the text of this verse, you now encounter il vuestri, meaning your (plural). Observe: il vuestri libri (your book); i vuestris libris (your books); la vuestre cjase (your house); lis vuestris cjasis (your houses).

Verset 30

A lis bestiis salvadiis (to the wild beasts), ai ucei dal cîl (to the birds of the heaven) e a dut ce che si strissine su la tiere (and to all that which drags itself on the earth) e che al à intorsi la vite (and which has life about itself), jo o doi par mangjative (I give for food) dut ce che al è vert (all that which is green), e cussì al sucedè (and so it came to pass).

Vocabulary: a (to), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), dut ce che (all that which), strissinâsi (to drag oneself), su la tiere (on the earth), vê intorsi (to have about oneself), la vite (life), (to give), la mangjative (food), par mangjative (for food), vert (green), cussì (so), sucedi (to come to pass).

Si strissine is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of strissinâsi. Study the wording dut ce che: dut ce che si strissine (all that which drags itself); dut ce che al à intorsi la vite (all that which has life about itself); dut ce che al è vert (all that which is green).

Verset 31

Diu al cjalà (God looked upon) ce che al veve fat (that which he had made) e al leve propit ben (and it was squarely good). E passà une sere e une buinore (an evening passed by and a morning): seste zornade (sixth day).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), cjalâ (to look {upon}), ce che (that which), (to make), lâ propit ben (to be squarely good), passà (to pass {by}), la sere (evening), la buinore (morning), sest (sixth), la zornade (day).

Al veve fat (he had made, he had done) is the third-person singular of the trapassât prossim. Observe the following pairs: al à fat; al veve fat (he made; he had made); ce che al à fat; ce che al veve fat (that which he made; that which he had made).

You now learn the Friulian for sixth: sest (masculine), seste (feminine).


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