Study Latin from the Bible: Genesis 1, verses 9-19

In this post, you will study the Latin that appears in verses 9-19 of the first chapter of Liber Genesis (book of Genesis), from the Biblia Sacra Vulgata (Stuttgartensia). These verses cover the third and fourth days of creation.

In all the posts pertaining to the Latin Bible, I have, to the best of my knowledge and ability, translated the verses literally into English, whilst simultaneously striving to produce an intelligible wording. I have often preferred to use Latin derivatives in English, except when the choice of a derivative would have unduly obscured the translation. In any case, the translation is provided as an educational tool above all else.

The principal parts of the verbs that appear in these verses are listed at the end of this post, for your reference.

Verses 9-19 read as follows:

9dixit vero Deus congregentur aquae quae sub caelo sunt in locum unum et appareat arida factumque est ita

 

10et vocavit Deus aridam terram congregationesque aquarum appellavit maria et vidit Deus quod esset bonum

 

11et ait germinet terra herbam virentem et facientem semen et lignum pomiferum faciens fructum iuxta genus suum cuius semen in semet ipso sit super terram et factum est ita

 

12et protulit terra herbam virentem et adferentem semen iuxta genus suum lignumque faciens fructum et habens unumquodque sementem secundum speciem suam et vidit Deus quod esset bonum

 

13factumque est vespere et mane dies tertius

 

14dixit autem Deus fiant luminaria in firmamento caeli ut dividant diem ac noctem et sint in signa et tempora et dies et annos

 

15ut luceant in firmamento caeli et inluminent terram et factum est ita

 

16fecitque Deus duo magna luminaria luminare maius ut praeesset diei et luminare minus ut praeesset nocti et stellas

 

17et posuit eas in firmamento caeli ut lucerent super terram

 

18et praeessent diei ac nocti et dividerent lucem ac tenebras et vidit Deus quod esset bonum

 

19et factum est vespere et mane dies quartus

Genesis 1:9-19 (Vulgata Stuttgartensia)

Versus 9

dīxit vērō Deus (and God said) congregentur aquae (let be congregated the waters) quae sub caelō sunt (that are under the heaven) in locum ūnum (into one place) et appareat ārida (and let appear the dry land) factumque est ita (and it was done so)

  • vērō, and
  • congregāre, to congregate
  • locus, locī, m., place
  • appārēre, to appear
  • ārida, āridae, f., dry land

Congregentur is the third-person plural, present passive subjunctive of congregāre (to congregate). Appāreat is the third-person singular, present active subjunctive of appārēre (to appear).

appāret ārida
the dry land appears

appāreat ārida
let the dry land appear

The caelō of sub caelō (under the heaven) is the ablative of caelus (heaven). This is similar to sub firmāmentō (under the firmament), which you have already encountered, where firmāmentō is the ablative of firmāmentum (firmament).

In the phrase in locum ūnum (into one place), the words locum ūnum are the accusative of locus ūnus (one place). The Latin in is followed by the accusative when used in the sense of the English into (motion), and by the ablative when used in the sense of the English in (location). In this verse, you have motion: let the waters be congregated into one place.

Versus 10

et vocāvit Deus āridam terram (and God called the dry land earth) congregātiōnēsque aquārum appellāvit maria (and the congregations of the waters He called seas) et vīdit Deus quod esset bonum (and God saw that it was good)

  • congregātiō, congregātiōnis, f., congregation
  • mare, maris, n., sea

The plural of congregātiō (congregation) is congregātiōnēs. The plural of mare (sea) is maria. Congregātiōnēs and maria as used in this verse are both in the accusative.

Versus 11

et āit (and He said) germinet terra (let the earth germinate) herbam virentem et facientem sēmen (the herb being green and making seed) et lignum pōmiferum faciēns frūctum (and the fruit-bearing tree making fruit) iūxtā genus suum (after its kind) cūius sēmen in sēmet ipsō sit (whose seed is in itself) super terram (upon the earth) et factum est ita (and it was done so)

  • āiere, to say
  • germināre, to germinate
  • herba, herbae, f., herb
  • virēre, to be green
  • sēmen, sēminis, n., seed
  • lignum, lignī, n., tree
  • pōmifer, pōmifera, pōmiferum, fruit-bearing
  • frūctus, frūctūs, m., fruit
  • iūxtā, after
  • genus, generis, n., kind
  • suus, sua, suum, its
  • cūius, whose
  • in sēmet ipsō, in itself

Āit is the third-person singular, present active indicative of āiere (to say). Germinet is the third-person singular, present active subjunctive of germināre (to germinate). Sit is the third-person singular, present active subjunctive of esse (to be).

Virēns is the active present participle of virēre (to be green). Its accusative form is virentem. Faciēns is the active present participle of facere (to make, to do). Its accusative form is facientem.

The nominative neuter sēmen (seed) is the same in its accusative form: sēmen. In the phrase iūxtā genus suum (after its kind), the words genus suum are in the accusative. Cuius is the genitive of quod (who).

Versus 12

et prōtulit terra (and the earth brough forth) herbam virentem et adferentem sēmen (the herb being green and bearing seed) iūxtā genus suum (after its kind) lignumque faciēns frūctum (and the tree making fruit) et habēns unumquodque sēmentem (and each one having seeding) secundum speciem suam (according to its kind) et vīdit Deus quod esset bonum (and God saw that it was good)

  • prōferre, to bring forth
  • adferre, to bear
  • habēre, to have
  • unumquodque, each one
  • sēmentis, sēmentis, f., seeding
  • secundum, according to
  • speciēs, speciēī, f., kind

Prōtulit is third-person singular, perfect active indicative of prōferre (to bring forth). Adferēns is the active present participle of adferre (to bear). Its accusative form is adferentem. Habēns is the active present participle of habēre (to have). Its accusative form, which is not used in this verse, is habentem.

Unumquodque (or unumquidque) is the neuter form of the nominative masculine unusquisque (each one). The feminine form is unaquisque.

Sēmentem is the accusative of sēmentis (seeding). In the phrase secundum speciem suam, the words speciem suam are in the accusative.

Versus 13

factumque est vespere et māne (and it was done evening and morning) diēs tertius (third day)

  • tertius, tertia, tertium, third

You have now encountered the form factumque est in verses 5 and 13, and the form et factum est in verse 8.

Versus 14

dīxit autem Deus (and God said) fīant luminaria in firmāmentō caelī (let be made luminaries in the firmament of the heaven) ut dīvidant diem ac noctem (so that they divide the day and the night) et sint in signa et tempora et diēs et annōs (and be as signs for seasons and days and years)

  • luminare, luminaris, n., luminary
  • ut, so that
  • signum, signī, n., sign
  • tempus, temporis, n., season

Fīant is the third-person plural, present passive subjunctive of facere (to make, to do). Sint is the third-person plural, present active subjunctive of esse (to be). Dīvidant is the third-person plural, present active subjunctive of dīvidere (to divide).

dīvidunt luminaria diem ac noctem
the luminaries divide the day and the night

ut dīvidant luminaria diem ac noctem
so that the luminaries divide the day and the night

Luminaria is the plural of luminare (luminary). Signa, tempora, diēs and annōs are all accusative plural forms; the use of the accusative in the phrase in signa and then followed by the accusatives in et tempora et diēs et annōs conveys the sense of as; for.

Versus 15

ut lūceant in firmāmentō caelī (so that they shine in the firmament of the heaven) et inlūminent terram (and illuminate the earth) et factum est ita (and it was done so)

  • lūcēre, to shine
  • inlūmināre, to illuminate

Lūceant is the third-person plural, present active subjunctive of lūcēre (to shine). Inlūminent is the third-person plural, present active subjunctive of inlūmināre (to illuminate); inlūmināre is a variant of illūmināre.

lūcent luminaria
ut lūceant luminaria

the luminaries shine
so that the luminaries shine

inlūminant luminaria
ut inlūminent luminaria

the luminaries illuminate
so that the luminaries illuminate

Versus 16

fēcitque Deus (and God made) duo magna luminaria (two great luminaries) luminare māius (the major luminary) ut praeesset diēī (so that it ruled the day) et luminare minus (and the minor luminary) ut praeesset noctī (so that it ruled the night) et stēllās (and the stars)

  • duo, duae, duo, two
  • magnus, magna, magnum, great
  • māior, māior, māius, major
  • praeesse, to rule
  • minor, minor, minus, minor
  • stēlla, stēllae, f., star

Praeesset is the third-person singular, imperfect active subjunctive of praeesse (to rule). Both diēī and noctī, following the verb praeesse, are in the dative.

Versus 17

et posuit eās (and He put them) in firmāmentō caelī (in the firmament of the heaven) ut lūcērent super terram (so that they shone upon the earth)

  • pōnere, to put
  • eās, them

Posuit is the third-person singular, perfect active indicative of pōnere (to put). Lūcērent is the third-person plural, imperfect active subjunctive of lūcēre (to shine).

Eās is the accusative of eae (they).

Versus 18

et praeessent diēī ac noctī (and ruled the day and the night) et dīviderent lūcem ac tenebrās (and divided the light and the darkness) et vīdit Deus quod esset bonum (and God saw that it was good)

Praeessent is the third-person plural, imperfect active subjunctive of praeesse (to rule). Dīviderent is the third-person plural, imperfect active subjunctive of dīvidere (to divide).

Versus 19

et factum est vespere et māne (and it was done evening and morning) diēs quartus (fourth day)

  • quartus, quarta, quartum, fourth

You have now encountered the form factumque est in verses 5 and 13, and the form et factum est in verses 8 and 19.

Principal parts of verbs

  • adferō, adferre, attulī, allātum
  • āiō, āiere
  • appāreō, appārēre, appāruī, appāritum
  • congregō, congregāre, congregāvī, congregātum
  • dīvidō, dīvidere, dīvīsī, dīvīsum
  • faciō, facere, fēcī, factum
  • germinō, germināre, germināvī, germinātum
  • habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum
  • inlūminō, inlūmināre, inlūmināvī, inlūminātum
  • lūceō, lūcēre, lūxī
  • pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positum
  • praesum, praeesse, praefuī, praefutum
  • prōferō, prōferre, prōtulī, prōlātum
  • sum, esse, fuī, futum
  • vireō, virēre, viruī